Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Synthesis and characterization of co-edaf and its application test as a carrier membrane for phenol transport using polymer inclusion membrane (PIM)

Agung Abadi Kiswandono, Mudasir, Dwi Siswanta, Nurul Hidayat Aprilita, Sri Juari Santosa and Sutopo Hadi

Page No. 1-9

The development of a new compound derived from polyeugenol as carrier compound in phenol transport has been successfully performed. The compound of copoly(eugenol-dialyl phthalate) or co-EDAF was synthesized by reacting eugenol and dialyl phthalate agent through a polymerization process using boron tri-fluorodiethyl ether as a catalyst. The obtained compound was then tested for its ability as a carrier compound in phenol transport using polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) method. The synthesized compound was characterized by using FTIR, SEM and TG-DTA analytical methods.

Based on the results of characterization, it was shown that co-EDAF has been successfully obtained. The loss of the absorbance band at the wavenumber of 995.27 cm-1 suggests that the unsaturated vinyl group (-CH = CH2) in eugenol has undergone successful polymerization process. The TG-DTA data also support the success of the polymerization process as indicated by the differences in temperature T5%, T20%, T50% and Tmax in co-EDAF from those of the control compound polyeugenol. Furthermore, the carrier test in phenol transport has also demonstrated that the membrane containing the co-EDAF can effectively serve as a carrier compound as shown by its ability to transport phenol repeatedly.

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μ-SPE of Bisphenol A in Beverage and Water using Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes-Reinforced Agarose Film

Aow Yong L.M., Khalik W.M.A.W.M., Yusoff F. and Loh S.H.

Page No. 10-15

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic chemical widely applied as the monomer in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. In this work, a micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) technique using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-reinforced agarose film function as an adsorbent coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection was developed for the analysis of BPA in beverage and environmental water. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the method offered excellent linearity with correlation coefficient, r = 0.9977, in the range of 0.1 to 100 ppb. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.02 and 0.1 ppb respectively.

The technique demonstrated acceptable relative recoveries average ranging 81.0 to 98.7% using carbonated beverage, river and sea water samples spiked at 1 and 10 ppb. The proposed μ-SPE was proven simple, cost-effective and consuming trace amounts of organic solvents; thus, contributing towards green chemistry.

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Image-based detection of copper using methyl orange-zeolite

Mallare Kyla Noelle, Dumlao Arianna Francesca, Besande Gregory Simon, Bautista Joel and Bailon Mark Xavier

Page No. 16-22

Copper contamination of certain bodies of water poses a threat to the environment and the living organisms dependent on that body of water. However, existing copper detection methods are costly and inaccessible, so organisms vulnerable to the contamination remain so. To address this problem, a copper detection method was prepared through the use of methyl orange-modified zeolites (MOZ) and a phone application performing Digital Imaging Colorimetry (DIC).

Different concentrations of copper solutions were prepared and reacted with methyl orange-modified zeolites and photographed. The resulting color change was quantified through DIC and plotted against each other. High linearity curve was obtained when ln (red/green) is plotted against Cu concentration. FTIR results confirmed the interaction between the methyl orange and copper ions. In addition, a phone application was made using MIT AppInventor that can automatically compute for the copper concentration when images of the MOZ are uploaded.

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Evaluation of antagonistic potential of antifungal bacteria on fungal pathogens of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Girish K. and Bindu K.R.

Page No. 23-30

Six bacterial strains procured from MTCC, India were screened for their antifungal activity against two fungal pathogens of tomato. Two bacterial strains, Erwinia sp. (MTCC 2760) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 7904) showed better inhibition of Cladosporium fulvum and Fusarium oxysporum on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium by dual culture assay. The crude extracts of these two bacterial (Erwinia sp. and P. aeruginosa) cultures were then assayed against the fungi by food-poisoning method.

The results of in vitro assessment of antagonism showed that both the bacterial strains had significant antifungal activity against the tested pathogenic fungi and could be further studied for the possibility of using these bacterial strains as biopesticides for ecofriendly management of tomato diseases.

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Removal of Chromium (VI) from Industrial Effluent using pumpkin peel powder as adsorbent

Patel Chahita, Kharwar Ruby and Dixit Ritu

Page No. 31-36

Adsorption efficiency of prepared biomass of pumpkin peel powder (PPP) as low-cost adsorbent material for efficient removal of Cr (VI) ions from electroplating industrial effluent was carried out. The effects of pH, initial concentration, biosorbent dosage and contact time were studied using batch equilibrium method. Experimental data showed approximately 45% of Cr (VI) ions removal at highly acidic medium (pH-2) within 60 min by PPP biomass on experimental conditions.

The removal mechanism of Cr (VI) was studied using adsorption isotherm of biomass materials by fitting experimental data into Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Experimental results suggest that PPP, an agro waste material is efficient biosorbent for removal of Chromium (VI) from industrial effluent.

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Fragment-based design and computer-aided evaluation of novel phenyl urea derivatives as VEGFR-2 inhibitors

Jain Vinita, Modi Kumud and Yadav Mukesh

Page No. 37-45

Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) or fragment-based lead design (FBLD) is a well-recognized tool in structure-based drug design. Sorafenib is a clinically validated phenyl urea derived vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) inhibitor. Functional fragments of sorafenib are used to collect various structurally similar fragments from chemical databases. Fragment linking generated a small library of novel molecules which are further virtually screened and validated using molecular docking studies. Comparative binding site analysis reveals improved interactions by novel molecules when compared to sorafenib. Molecular docking studies identified improved docking scores and re-rank scores for newly designed phenyl urea derivatives. Promising binding abilities of novel VEGFR-2 inhibitors were further evaluated on the scales of druglikeness, Lipinski’s rule of five, ADME and toxicity.

Newly designed VEGFR-2 inhibitor candidates achieved safe scores as compared to sorafenib in terms of druglikeness, Lipinski’s rule of five, ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) and toxicity and are ranked high in terms of binding ability with VEGFR-2 receptor as revealed in molecular docking results. Majorly three amino acids named Cys-919, Glu-885 & Asp-1046 are involved in H-bonding of sorafenib with VEGFR-2. Newly designed derivatives successfully resumed H-bonding with these three amino acids and in addition, showed better electrostatic interactions and reduced steric clashes due to better complimentary shape with the binding site.

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Assessment of annual tropospheric ozone using passive samplers in northern Algeria

Oucher Nassima, Kerchich Yacine and Kerbachi Rabah

Page No. 46-55

This study presents tropospheric ozone (O3) pollution levels measured at fifty (50) different sites (urban and suburban) over two-year period (2012 and 2013) in Algiers. During this period, four weekly sampling campaigns were carried out using the Radiello passive diffusive tubes. The total number of the collected samples was 177. These samples underwent a UV-VIS spectrophotometry analysis.

The results obtained showed that the average O3 measured concentrations on all sites for the set of campaigns carried out ranged from 44.26 to 213.18μg m-3 and the annual O3 average during the study period was 156.60μg m-3 with minimum and maximum average values of 100.80 and 211.25μg m-3 respectively. These values are lower than the limit value of 200μg m-3 and higher than the objective air quality value of 110μg m-3, set by Algerian Executive Decree. In addition, ozone pollution levels over a period of 8h and 24h were measured on urban site. The study of seasonal variations showed high levels of ozone concentrations during the summer period compared to the winter period. A mapping of the spatial distribution of the mean O3 mean concentrations was performed using the ArcGIS software.

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Analysis of the tocopherols, tocotrienols, phospholipids and phytosterol composition of Tetracarpidium conophorum seed oil: implications for industrial and health applications

Olatunya Ayomadewa Mercy and Akintayo Emmanuel Temitope

Page No. 56-61

There are ongoing efforts to unmask the health and industrial benefits of tocopherols, tocotrienols, phospholipid and phytosterols derived from seed oils. These have triggered the need to explore more on the vegetable oils extracted from some common and underutilized plants. In this research, we analysed the oil extracted from Tetracarpidium conophorum (African walnut) seeds; the oil was extracted using Soxhlet extractor and the various lipid profile viz: fatty acid, phytosterol, phospholipid, tocopherol and tocotrienol compositions were analysed using chromatographic techniques.

Results showed that the vegetable oil contained majorly poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with high percentage of linoleic acid. The total phytosterol content was 129 mg/100g and the total phospholipid content was 991 mg/100g. In addition, the oil has averagely high amount of tocopherols but very minute quantity of tocotrienols. In conclusion, the chemical properties of the oil have shown wide health and industrial applications and also confirmed its edibility. Thus, this vegetable oil could be a good source of these lipids to the human body system when consumed in adequate proportions and could also be used as dietary supplement to combat and prevent the occurrence of certain deadly diseases.

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The corrosion inhibitive action of expired lifebuoy soap on aluminum in 3 M HCl medium: Probabilistic Assessment towards inhibition of aluminum corrosion in hostile fluid environment

- Narasimha Raghavendra

Page No. 62-66

The surface protection property of expired lifebuoy soap on the Al surface in 3 M HCl environment was evaluated by gravimetric, gasometrical, Tafel plot and impedance spectroscopy techniques. The results show that the expired lifebuoy soap behaves as corrosion inhibitor for the system Al in 3 M HCl solution. The protection efficiency enhances with the increment in the expired lifebuoy soap amount in the corrosive media. The maximum protection efficiency is 96 % at 0.2 g/L at 60o C.

The mixed corrosion inhibition role of expired lifebuoy soap was confirmed by the Tafel plots. The charge transfer resistance values are directly proportional to the expired lifebuoy soap amounts in corrosive media. Gasometric studies shows that the presence of expired lifebuoy soap reduces the amount of hydrogen gas evolution.

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Effects of metals and soil characteristics on the bioluminescence activity of a bioreporter strain used for biomonitoring toluene analog pollutants

Kyung-Seok Ko, Dong-Chan Koh and In Chul Kong

Page No. 67-75

This study evaluated the influence of soil properties including metal content on the bioluminescence of a bioreporter strain (Pseudomonas putida mt-2 KG1206) used for monitoring soil pollution by toluene analogs. In control experiments, bioluminescence activity was induced by such analogs to varying extents in the following order: toluene > m-toluate > m xylene > p xylene > o-xylene. The extent of bioluminescence triggered by each inducer in different soil extracts was influenced by a wide range of factors; bioluminescence activity ranged from 53% to 156% relative to the control values. Neither the total nor weak acid-extracted metal content of the soil samples correlated with the sum of the total bioluminescence activities over all inducers (R2 < 0.2671).

However, considerable correlations were observed between the weak acid-extracted metal content and the bioluminescence activity of specific inducers; toluene and m-toluate produced R2 values of 0.6133 and 0.7677 respectively. Our results suggest that among the soil characteristics examined, the weak acid-extracted metal content and cation exchange capacity are slightly more correlated with the bioluminescence activity of the bioreporter strain KG1206 at biomonitoring sites.

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A cleaner and convenient approach to Amines: Reduction of Symmetric diimines using NaBH4

Shinde Avinash T. and Deshmukh Nagesh J.

Page No. 76-78

Symmetric diimines have been reduced to their corresponding amines by means of NaBH4 using MeOH as a solvent at room temperature. The reaction time and yield are 1-1.5 hr and 65-80% respectively. Reduction process is very effective, inexpensive and clean for synthesis of diamines in good yield. The structures of the compounds are supported by FTIR, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data.

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Green Synthesis and characterization of Silver nanoparticles using Cinnamomum tamala leaf extract and its thermo-acoustic investigation

Taruna, Kaushal J. and Kumar V.

Page No. 79-88

In this study, the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum tamala (CT) was used to prepare silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by green synthesis.Silver nanoparticles were prepared by using AgNO3 and extract of CT taken in different ratios. The synthesized AgNPs are characterized by using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR),Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission electron miscroscopy (TEM).

Antibacterial activities of the synthesized AgNPs were also investigated against Escherichia coli(E. coli). Physico - chemical studies have also been done to find out the extent of interaction between AgNPs and various solvents by deriving the thermodynamic parameters.

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Selective feeding of three Cladocera species in mixtures of freshwater algae

Ismail Azma Hanim, Mills Scott and Recknagel Friedrich

Page No. 89-97

Grazing experiments evaluated by microscopic counting were conducted on three species of Cladocera (Daphnia carinata, D. lumholtzi and Ceriodaphnia cf. quadrangula) using algal mixtures as food. Cladocerans consumed all algae tested at different rates and efficiency levels as food particles in certain size categories. D. carinata removed algae cells at higher rates than the other two species. D. carinata apparently preferred large Scenedesmus obliquus over other food whereas D. lumholtzi and quadrangula tend to choose smaller size of Ankistrodesmus falcatus. Ingestion rates for the green and blue-green algae mixtures demonstrated that cladocerans did not avoid consuming the potentially toxic Microcystis flos-aquae.

This study examined selective algal grazing in a multispecies algal community for better understanding of how selectivity varies with food particle type and size, food concentration, and food quality among cladocerans species. Even though M. flos-aquae were less favourable as food in multi-algal suspension, all grazers tested could conceivably coexist with toxic blue green algae provided that there is other acceptable food supply in the habitat.

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Chemical speciation, retention and deposition of iron (Fe) in open cast pit (OCP) lake receiving industrial discharges: an environmental approach

Gupta Srimanta, Mitra Angana, Pobi Krishnendu Kumar and Nayek Sumanta

Page No. 98-106

Present study focuses on the determination of chemical species of iron, their distribution and retention in various compartments of pit lake system, both in solution and in solid phases. The concentrations of total iron in industrial effluents and open cast pit (OCP) water are quite higher than the Indian standards for inland surface waters. The phase diagram (pH vs Eh) analysis reveals that iron (Fe) is mostly present in reduced (Fe2+) or hydrated form (FeOH) in pit lake water. Fractionation study of iron content in pit lake sediment samples shows that the major percentage of total iron is present in reducible form and residual form.

The contamination factor (Cf) for iron in industrial effluents is high and moderate in case of OCP water which facilitates higher retention and deposition of iron in OCP water sediments. Application of environmetric approaches conforms substantial deposition of iron on OCP sediments. The correlation study between measured variables and different chemical forms/fractions of iron for OCP water and sediments confirms that iron was mainly sourced from effluents discharged by sponge iron industries.

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Cytokinin- A potential plant growth regulator for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) production

Sharma Rishu, Singh Shailesh Kumar, Singh Saurabh Kumar, Singh Sanjay and Sonam

Page No. 107-113

Natural cytokinins are substituted adenine derivatives. These are synthesized primarily in roots and known for their role in regulation of cell division and differentiation. The endogenous levels of cytokinin and auxin play significant role in many cellular mechanisms associated with growth and development in plants. Exogenous application of cytokinins can be effective to alter the cytokinin and auxin ratio in plant tissue and hence can regulate floral induction, fruiting, vegetative growth, runner production, fruit set, fruit yield and fruit quality in strawberry fruits.

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Synthesis and Optimization of Molecularly imprinted Monolithic Stationary Phase for High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Fadli Apriliandi, Akhmad Sabarudin and Aliya Nur Hasanah

Page No. 114-119

Molecular imprinting technology is a technique to design a material with the characteristic that can behave as selective and specific host for target molecules. Molecular imprinted can be used as a novel material in various application fields. Molecularly imprinted monolithic column integrates the high selectivity and specificity of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) with the high permeability of monolithic column.

In recent years, Molecularly Imprinted Monolithic Stationary Phase (MIMSP) development for HPLC has multiplied. This review will discuss the preparation of synthesis and optimization of the imprinted molecular monolith.

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