Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

Effect of first-flush runoff on nutrient influx of a river in semi-arid environment: a preliminary study

Artwell Kanda, France Ncube F. and Pride Madziro

Page No. 1-7

In order to understand nutrient influx into Cheche River through first-flush runoff other than point (domestic effluent discharge), the concentrations of TN and TP in water and river surface discharge were investigated during two runoff events and dry weather periods in two years. First-flush runoff provides energy to erode and transport materials en masse from the watershed into watercourses which are normally under low flow regimes in semi-arid environments. Waste stabilization pond effluent discharge (S 3) did not influence (p < 0.05) nutrient loading after the first-flush runoff event (TN: 7.76±0.57 and 8.27±0.57 TP: 1.52±0.01 and 1.50±0.12 g/s) suggesting that increased nutrient loading was imported mainly from the watershed. Surface runoff increased river discharge, nutrient concentrations and their loading downstream.

Further downstream (S 10), after the first-flush runoff event, the river had higher nutrient loadings for TN (9.78±1.40) and TP (1.81±0.17 g/s) than during the dry period (TN: 3.00±0.60; TP: 0.39±0.05 g/s). Land use in the watershed increased nutrient loading of Cheche River beyond its assimilative capacity.

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Isolation, lipid extraction and biodiesel property analysis of Mougeotia gracillima (Hassall) Wittrock

Nayana Borah and Mohana Devihalli Chikkaiah

Page No. 8-14

The present study evaluated the lipid production, fatty acid profile and biodiesel properties of the fresh-water isolates of Mougeotia gracillima. The lipid was estimated by gravimetric and fluoro-spectrophotometric methods. The fatty acid profiles from fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of M. gracillima were determined by Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The total cytosolic lipid content of M. gracillima was 19.5%. Among the six different fatty acids, the major fatty acids identified from FAME products were palmitic acid and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid.

The biodiesel properties of FAME products of M. gracillima showed kinematic viscosity 3.68 cSt at 40 ºC, flash point was 110°C, density at 15°C was 0.86 Kg m-³ and ash content was 0.01 % with 0.3% acid number. The percentage of biodiesel was found to be 45.8%. The optimum lipid production from M. gracillima was observed at 30.0 ± 2 ºC, pH 8, NaCl (0.15 mg mL-1), sucrose (0.5 mg mL-1) as carbon source and KNO3 (0.5 mg L-1) as nitrogen source. The obtained results confirm that the lipid extracted from M. gracillima could be used as an alternative source for biodiesel production.

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Efficiency of remediating soil contaminated with cadmium by Solanum nigrum. L

Nguyen Thanh Hung and Mai Huong Tra

Page No. 15-21

A study of cadmium uptake by Solanum nigrum. L (S. nigrum) was conducted using outdoor pot-culture and small scale field experiments. Results in outdoor pot-culture experiment showed that S. nigrum biomass compared with control (CK) is not significantly different (P< 0.05) under the Cd concentration of 25 mg kg-1 soil. The ability to accumulate Cd in above-ground parts is greater than 100 mg kg-1 biomass; BF (Bioconcentration factor) and TF (Translocation factor) coefficients are greater than 1. At the same time, the results achieved from small-scale field experiment were similar.

In addition, trials of planting S. nigrum in two industrial zones contaminated with typical Cd were conducted. Results showed that the effective remediation of soil contaminated with Cd by S. nigrum is very good. From the results of this study, it was demonstrated that S. nigrum is a Cd hyperaccumulator. This is an important finding to contribute to solve cadmium pollution problems as well as to apply for phytoremediation in specific situations.

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The inhibition mechanism of antiviral drugs towards the influenza A (H1N1) virus neuraminidase – in silico analysis

Sivanandam M., Parasuraman P. and Veluraja K.

Page No. 22-28

Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus which is responsible for the most common cause of human influenza and is often called as swine flu. Inhibition of this subtype influenza A (H1N1) virus [H1N1A] enzymatic mechanism leads to cure the pandemic swine flu. The most familiar drugs used to control the H1N1A are Oseltamivir, Oseltamivir carboxylate, Peramivir and Zanamivir. In this present work, molecular docking study is carried out for these four drug molecules towards H1N1A and the study confirms that the strong hydrogen bonding interactions and hydrophobic contacts have been formed with the binding site residues of H1N1A.

The calculated binding energy for the drug molecules such as Oseltamivir, Oseltamivir carboxylate, Peramivir and Zanamivir with the receptor H1N1A virus are -6.76, -6.89, -7.25 and -6.81 kcal/mol respectively. Based on the analysis of hydrogen bonding interactions, hydrophobic contacts and the binding energy calculations, Oseltamivir may be the best inhibitor for influenza H1N1A virus. The proposed conformer of OseltamivirH1N1A will be used to design the new drugs with enhanced efficiency to treat influenza virus.

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Photocatalytic Degradation of Mono Azo Dye Acid Red 88 by using Synthesized Calcium Aluminate Nanoparticle and its Kinetics

Shilpa G., Yogendra K., Mahadevan K.M. and Santhosh A.M.

Page No. 29-35

Calcium aluminate (CaAl2O4) nanoparticle was synthesized by simple solution combustion method by using glycine as fuel. Synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transmission electron microscope and UV-visible spectrophotometer. From the obtained results, average crystal size was found to be 22nm and band gap was found to be 2.3eV. Further Acid red 88 (AR88) dye was selected for the photocatalytic degradation carried out under sunlight.

The rate of degradation efficiency was studied by varying different parameters such as catalyst concentration, solution pH and dye concentration. The rate of degradation is highly efficient in 2×10-4 dye concentration with pH 8 and constant catalyst concentration was 0.025g/50ml. Pseudo first order rate constants and percentage of degradation were determined. Further photocatalytic mechanism was proposed. The result proves that CaAl2O4 can be used for removal of dyes from wastewater.

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Impact of Land-Use/ Land-Cover Changes and Hydro-Meteorological Phenomenon on Lake Biodiversity: A Case Study on Saheb Bandh Lake, India

Dutta Geetanjali, Gupta Srimanta, Ghosh Apurba Ratan and Mukherjee Priyabrata

Page No. 36-45

Ever increasing population, urbanization and innovation or modernization are posing problems of waste and wastewater discharge and contamination of lake waterbody. The current research work has been undertaken with the views to study the change detection scenario of land-use/land-cover pattern in the Saheb bandh lake catchment area and its consequence over micro-meteorological phenomena as well as lake hydrochemistry and biodiversity in a span of eleven years (2006 – 2017).

Land-use/land-cover study reveals that there is a rapid increase of mixed or urban built up land (40.25%) with 3.66% annual average rate of expansion. Land-use change has a direct bearing on increasing ambient temperature over lake catchment area which in turn affects the lake nutrients levels and thereby biodiversity. Nutrient model suggests that the lake is well mixed throughout the year and the changes of micro-meteorological parameters have significant effect for the dynamic behaviour of this lake. Gradual decrease in nutrient concentration (NO3-N, TP) over the studied time span leads to less productive nature of the lake which is also reflected through the decrease in zooplankton and increase in phytoplankton population.

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Synthesis of Keratinase Enzyme from Sheep Wool for Bio-polishing

Selvakumar A., Saravanan D., Balaji S., Balakrishnaraja R. and Kannan K.P.

Page No. 46-49

At present, the scenario of textile industry has been radically changed to use eco-friendly chemicals and enzymes for various wet processing of wool fibres. In general, wool bio-polishing is not so easy because of its complex fibre structure. The wool fibre has about 18 amino acids with the major composition part that contains proteins (97%) and lipids (1%). The wool fibre has some intrinsic properties (due to its morphological and scale structure) that makes wool fibre tendency to felting and shrinkage. Many research works have been carried out on bio-polishing of wool fibres using various enzymes. In this research work, we made an attempt to synthesize keratinase enzymes for polishing of wool fibres.

This is because keratinase enzyme has the ability to attack the disulfide (-S-S-) bond in the keratin substrate, so it can be employed for bio-polishing of wool. The keratinase enzymes were produced by taking sheep wool and soil from sheep cattle through various biological processes. The enzymes produced through the mass culture and the enzymatic activity were observed through keratinase activity assay testing. It is reported that the enzyme production is realized better to the source wool fibre and cattle sand taken. The optimized production process may be the better alternative way for bulk production of keratinase enzyme for bio-polishing of wool fibres.

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Potentials of the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia L leaves

Sukmawati, Muflihunna A. and Rahmawati

Page No. 50-52

Pare (Momordica charantia L.) plant is known as one of the herbal plants in Indonesia. Pare has antioxidant properties that can avoid free radicals and also properties as Vermox drug, cough, fever, constipation medication, appetite booster, treating syphilis and liver. Pare leaves contain vitamin A,B,C, saponin, flavanoid, steroid, alkaloid, carotenoid, momordicine, tricosanoic acid and resinate acid. This study aims at determining the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract Pare leaves. The extraction was done by a maceration method using 90% ethanol solvent. A qualitative analysis of content was done about the addition of chloride copper (II) solution for antioxidant activity. The determination of total phenol content was done by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer method with a maximum wavelength of 709 nm and to examine the antioxidant activity of Pare leaves with a wavelength of 452 nm by using Trolox solution as the comparator.

Results of the study show that in the qualitative assay, the sample had the content of phenolic compound, while in the determination of total phenolic compound or in the quantitative assay, 14.181 GAE/g of extracts was obtained while the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of Pare leave ethanolic extract was 11.496 µmol TR/g of extract.

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Sewage sludge adsorbents used to remove Lambda Cyhalothrin from aqueous phase

Belarbi Ouassyla, Marouf Reda, Ouadjenia Fatima and Schott Jacques

Page No. 53-61

The sewage sludge was obtained from the wastewater treatment plant in the town of Saida (Algeria). Before use, the sewage sludge was dried in the open air for three days, then washed several times and calcined at 900°C, then at 1000°C. The adsorption of Lambda-Cyhalothrin from aqueous solutions onto sewage sludge was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, initial L-C concentration and temperature. The adsorption capacities of Lambda-Cyhalothrin were found equal to 11.62, 10.63 and 6.67 mg/g at pH = 3 and room temperature, for raw sludge (S-R), S-900 and S-1000 respectively.

The adsorption capacity increased smoothly as the temperature rose. Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir–Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied to describe the related isotherms. The Freundlich equation showed the best fit to the experimental data. The pseudo-first and pseudo-second order kinetic models were used to describe the adsorption kinetics. The kinetics study results showed that the adsorption of Lambda-Cyhalothrin onto samples followed the pseudo-second order model.

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Enhanced peroxymonosulfate activation for Pyridine degradation by ultrasound irradiation: Performances and mechanisms

Davoud Balarak, Mohadeseh Dashtizadeh and Mortaza Akbari

Page No. 62-66

The degradation of refractory organic compounds to harmless matters is one of the major concerns of environmentalists. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising technologies producing the hydroxyl and sulfate radicals for pollutant degradation. In this study, removal of pyridine, a basic heterocyclic organic compound was investigated by 35 kHz ultrasound in the presence of potassium monopersulfate (oxone). The variables that change in this strategy were concentration of oxone, initial pyridine concentration and sonication period. The result has shown that the separate use of ultrasonic degradation will not take a high performance with the best removal percent of 80%.

Simultaneously use of US/Oxone cached a more highly reduction in tetracycline concentration and the best reduction was 97.8% removal that took place at pH7, pyridine concentration of 10 mg/L, input power of 360 W, sonication period of 60 min. The ultrasonic degradation of pyridine was enhanced by oxone addition. It was found that the degradation of the pyridine was accelerated with increased concentrations of oxone for reaction time of 60 min.

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Dibenzimidamide based colorimetric chemosensor for Hg2+ ions- A new application of famous drug

Patil Prashant, Sehlangia Suman, Patil Nilesh and Patil Umesh

Page No. 67-75

The dibenzimidamide based receptor 4,4'-(triaz-1-ene-1,3-diyl)dibenzimidamide (TDB-1) was synthesized and characterized by various spectral data. The metal ions sensing ability of the receptor TDB-1 was investigated by various UV-Vis experiments with a series of metal ions such as Ag+, Al3+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cr3+, Cs+, Fe2+, Fe3+, K+, Li+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Na+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Sr2+, Zn2+ and Hg2+in aqueous media. Upon addition of Hg2+, the colourless solution of the receptor TDB-1 turned to yellow and the absorbance at 355 nm of TDB-1 was quenched and concomitantly a red-shifted band appeared to 410 nm. Without any interference from the other tested metal ions, the Hg2+ concentration can be detected down to 0.25 µM by using the receptor TDB-1. The 2:1 binding stoichiometry was confirmed by job’s plot and mass data and the probably structure of the complex was proposed by DFT calculation.

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Determining ADME properties for clinically available lung and liver cancer drugs

Shanmuga Sundari Ilangovan, Oviyaasri M., Nandhini K., Manoj Prabu D. and Kavipriya P.

Page No. 76-81

Traditional drug discovery involves tremendous resources and inputs to discover and develop new drugs. However, drug failure occurs at various stages (phases II and III) of clinical trials. The reason behind the failure is the adverse side effects posed by the drugs that are identified only at late stages. Hence, determining the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) properties of drugs before entering the clinical trials is mandatory to reduce the efforts and cost spent in drug discovery.

Further, predicting ADME with in silico tools reduces the time spent compared to in vitro ADME prediction. In the present work, anticancer drugs for lung and liver cancer that are in the clinical trials were retrieved and their ADME properties were predicted. Among the 25 and 29 lung and liver cancer drugs, 3 and 6 drugs exhibited ADME properties beyond the permissible limits respectively. Further, only 5 lung cancer and 2 liver cancer drugs exhibited Blood Brain Barrier penetration with highest GI absorption, indicating the drugs to possess minimal side effects. The remaining drugs exhibit minimum of 1 ADME violation which needs further pharmacophore modelling to make them within the ADME permissible range.

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Application of photocatalyst and kinetic studies of degradation of copper surfactants derived from non-vegetable oils for sustainable green chemistry

Sharma Swati, Sharma Rashmi and Sharma Arun Kumar

Page No. 82-95

In the present investigation, photocatalytic degradation has been applied for degradation of copper neem and karanj surfactants derived from non-edible oils. Both copper surfactants were synthesized by reported methods and characterized by elemental analysis as well as spectroscopic techniques such as IR and NMR. The degradation was carried out by irradiating the aqueous solutions of copper surfactants containing ZnO with UV. In this technique a semiconductor ZnO is used which is non-toxic in nature. The rate of reaction was estimated from residual concentration spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance of the reaction mixture at definite time intervals. Different parameters such as the concentration of surfactant (0.4-0.96 g l-1), amount of semiconductor (0.01-0.06 g), light intensity (26-54 mWcm-2), effect of solvent polarity (20-80%) and time period for degradation (0-18 h) were varied to achieve the optimum rate of photo degradation.

The observations revealed that both copper surfactants were degraded successfully by using ZnO under UV. The disappearance of copper surfactants follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (L–H) model. A tentative mechanism has been proposed for the photo degradation of copper surfactants.

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Data on solubility, density, sound velocity and thermoacoustic parameters of water + 1-propanol + Na2SO4/Na2SO3 system and its triangular phase diagrams

Jadhav Vidhya, Mane-Gavade Shubhangi, Tamhankar Bhaskar, Kolekar Sanjay and Sabale Sandip

Page No. 96-105

This data was obtained from solubility of Na2SO4 / Na2SO3 salts in various concentrations of alcohol-water to construct the liquid-liquid-solid triangular phase diagrams. The density and sound velocity data of binary and ternary systems of water + 1-propanol and water + 1-propanol + Na2SO4/Na2SO3 are used to determine the other thermo acoustic parameters including adiabatic compressibility (βs), excess molar volume (VE), intermolecular free length (Lf), specific acoustic impedance (Z), relative association (RA) and solvation number (Sn).

The obtained data is explanatory to understand the solute-solute, solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions as well as structure making and structure breaking properties of solute in aqueous solutions resulting into the salting out of alcohol.

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Simultaneous biodegradation of methylene blue and phenol by Trametes hirsuta in batch and packed bed reactors

Hachi Mohamed, Hamidi Mohamed, Touati Mostefa, Benalia Yabrir and Souilah Rachid

Page No. 106-115

Fungal biodegradation is widely described as an efficient technological process for wastewater treatment, especially for removal of recalcitrant pollutants. Treatment of wastewater containing methylene blue and phenol has received much attention in recent years due to their toxicities and slow biodegradation. In this work, Trametes hirsuta mycelium was grown and used to remove methylene blue and phenol. Single and binary removal of both pollutants was carried out in batch and fixed bed column. Removal mechanism was investigated using active and inactive T. hirsuta and crude growth medium.

Results showed that at methylene blue and phenol concentrations of 25 and 10 mg/L respectively, removal of more than 80% of both products in binary batch system was achieved within only 80 minutes. Passive adsorption mechanism was slightly involved in methylene blue removal in single system while the removal of phenol was only possible through both intracellular and extracellular enzymatic degradation.

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Potential Anti – Cancer effect of Azadirachta indica bark Ethanolic Extract on NCI-H460 Cell Lines

Sinduja M.E. and Bright John I.

Page No. 116-123

Cancer is the abnormal growth of cells that leads to death of mankind. According to Americal Cancer Society, the death due to cancer constitutes up to 2 to 3 % every year. The death reate associated due to cancer is mainly because of associated side effects of modern treatments such as Chemotherapy and Radiation therapy. Many cancer patients seeks an alternative method of treatment. Plant based Secondary metabolites are mainly used as an alternative for modern medicines and proved to be devoid of any side effects. This study focuses on the search of potential anti-cancer activity against non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line (NCI-H460) using the bark extract of Azadirachta indica.

The whole study showed the effect of the crude extract showing effective anti – cancer activity in treated cell lines by exhibiting decreasing cell proliferation by carrying out MTT Assay. The increasing intracellular ROS was investigated in treated cells by addition of DCFH-DA which was oxidized to DCF, fluorescent dichloro fluorescein by significant increase in ROS level due to cytotoxic effect of the crude extract in treated cell lines. The alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis in NCI-H460 cells was observed by dual staining method in which the treated cell appeared orange in colour (ethidium bromide stained). The Ethidium bromide stains DNA in the cells undergoing apoptosis and hence apoptotic cells were appeared orange in colour.

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Analysis of Physicochemical Parameters of Petroleum Sludge impacted soils after remediation with Organic Waste

Useh Mercy Uwem, Dauda Mary Sunday, Abdulrahman Funke Wosilat and Useh Uwem Jonah

Page No. 124-131

For optimization of effective bioremediation processes, it is essential to consider environmental factors affecting the process. Petroleum sludge impacted soil samples from around Warri refinery, Delta State, Nigeria were assessed for some physicochemical parameters before and after remediation with agro-waste from Moringa seed. The remediation process was carried out for 90 days and samples were taken for analysis at 30 days interval. The analysis revealed a sinusoidal pattern of results at the end of the study period which indicated that most of the degradation activities took place within the first 30 days.

More so, from the analyses after treatment of the samples with Moringa Oleifera seed cake (MOSC), the results as compared to the control, indicated that the agro-waste did not only add the needed nutrients to the soil, it was also able to mop-up certain minerals that could further endanger the use of the soil.

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Chemo-divergent synthesis of polyhydroquinolines using retrievable Nickel (II) exchanged zeolite nanoparticles as catalyst and their pharmacological screening

Paul Dhivya and Subramanian Parameswaran Rajendran

Page No. 132-138

A greener protocol involving multi component cyclocondensation reactions starting from potential precursors 2-hydroxy-4-formyl quinolines 1, malononitrile/ ethylacetoacetate/ methylacetoacetate 2(a-c) and substituted enaminones 3(a-c) to yield a series of novel heteroannulated compounds was achieved using nickel(II) exchanged zeolite [Ni(II)Y] (NiNPs). A salient feature is the synthesis of unaromatised products 4 (a-i).

The synthesised products were screened against human bacterial pathogens activity against two human bacterial pathogens, the gram-positive Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a human yeast pathogen, Fluconazole resistant Candida albicans (FRCA). The compounds were also evaluated for their antioxidant activity.

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Recent Advances in the Multicomponent Synthesis of Pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives

Maher Khalid and Mohammed Shireen

Page No. 139-156

This review highlights recent multicomponent reactions improvement in the synthesis of pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole derivatives in presence of different catalysts including sodium benzoate, CAN, AmberlystA21, L- or S-proline, CTACl, n-TiO2/H14[NaP5W30O110], SiO2TMG,Fe3O4, DMAP, MS 4Å, DABCO, NH4H2PO4/Al2O3,SnO2QDs, CAPB, BF3/MNPs, (Ni 0.5 Zn0.5Fe2O4@Hap-Cs2CO3), VB1, ZrO2 NPs,β-CD,TUD, urea, NaBr, MMT-ZSA, piperidine, NMOAg2O, InCl3, PEG-400, NaF and SiO2.

In this context, modern routes in the preparation and use of pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole as a pioneer for the heterocyclic framework are based on three- or four-multicomponent reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, hydrazine or phenylhydrazine, aromatic aldehyde and malononitrile substrates in presence of catalyst.

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