Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

Preparation, spectroscopic, DNA binding, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity studies on Cr(III) and Ni(II) mixed ligand complexes with creatine and L-arginine amino acids

Al-Saif Foziah A., Alibrahim Khuloud A. and Ismail Eman H.

Page No. 1-10

Chromium(III) and nickel(II) transition metal mixed ligand complexes of creatine (L1) and L-arginine (L2) amino acids have been prepared and characterized using elemental analysis, atomic absorption, FTIR, magnetic susceptibility and UV-Vis spectroscopy. It was found that ratio of metal: L1: L2 is 1:1:1 with the molecular formula [Cr.L1.L2.OH(H2O)].6H2O (1) and [Ni.L1.L2.(H2O)2].4H2O (2) respectively. All the complexes exhibit 6coordinate geometry. The present study reports preparation of nanosized Cr2O3 and ZnO oxides by thermal decomposition synthesis using parent chromium(III) and zinc(II) ternary complexes at high temperature of ~ 900 oC. Phase formation of the prepared oxides was analyzed with powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

The PXRD results confirm partial crystallinity and crystallite size of the oxides was calculated using DebyeScherer’s formula and it is found to in the nanoscale range. TEM images show the formation of nearly spherical and agglomerated particles. The antibacterial and antifungal studies of the metal complexes and the ligand have been evaluated against (S. pneumoniae, B. subtilis), two gram negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa, E. coli) and four fungi (A. fumigates, S. racemosum, G. candidum and C. albicans). The IC50 inhibitory activities of the synthesized complexes were scanned against three human cancer cell lines [hepatocellular carcinoma (HePG-2), colon carcinoma (HCT-116) and breast carcinoma (MCF-7)].

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In silico drug design of some novel compounds as an alternative for the anti IBD drug Tofacitinib

Vishnu V. and Subin Mary Zachariah

Page No. 11-17

Tofacitinib is the only available JAK inhibitor in the market till the date, but it is facing serious side effects like carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility, upper respiratory tract infections, headache, diarrhoea and nasopharyngitis. This clearly upholds the relevance of designing new novel drugs which are devoid of these side effects and will ameliorate the JAK inhibition activity. The target identification was done using Drug Bank. The primary and secondary protein characterisation was done using protparam and sopma respectively. Molecular properties and the drug likeness were calculated using Biovia Discovery Studio.

ADMET properties were determined using 'Discovery studio'. Finally, the designed drugs were docked with the selected target proteins and their CDOCKER Energy and CDOCKER Interaction Energy were determined and compared with the results of the standard drug molecule. The primary and secondary structure analysis of the target proteins clearly indicates that the selected proteins are fit to survive in the acidic environment of the inflammatory region. The molecular properties of the designed derivatives clearly indicate that all of them have drug like properties. The docking results clearly indicate that the 1-H benzimidazole derivative – CS7 is the more potent ligand to the respective JAK proteins.

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Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of pyrazolino and isoxazolo annelated cyclopent[b]indole derivatives

Sangeetha V. and Ramya V.

Page No. 18-23

Mixed aldol condensation of 1-oxo-1,2,3,8-tetrahydrocyclopent[b]indole1 (1a-1d) with naphthaldehyde (2) under basic condition led to the formation of 2-nathyledine-1-oxo-1,2,3,8-tetrahydrocyclopent[b]indole (3a-3d). Refluxing an ethanolic solution of 2-nathyledine-1-oxo-1,2,3,8-tetrahydrocyclopent[b]indole(3a-3d) with hydrazine hydrate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride resulted in the formation of the respective 6-methyl-3-napthyl-3,3a,4,9-tetrahydro-2H-pyrazolino[3’,4’:5,4] cyclopent[b]indole (4a-4d) and 4,9-Dihydro-6-methyl-3-naphthylisoxazolo[3’,4’:5,4]cyclopent[b]indole (5a-5d) in good yield.

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Purification of Fracking Water via Benzene-Adsorption on 4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane-based Polymers

Altarawneh Suha S.

Page No. 24-30

A comparison study showing the capability of fluorinated- open chain imine-linked polymer towards benzene-water separation process is discussed. The polymers used in this work are two new open chain imine-linked polymers synthesized via Schiff base condensation polymerization of 4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane and aryl-aldehydes. One of the polymers revealed fluoro- substituents in its backbone, while the other polymer was non-fluorinated chain. The structural formation of the polymers was determined from FTIR, 13C-NMR (CP-MAS) and elemental analysis.

The surface morphology and thermal stability were measured by applying SEM and TGA analysis respectively. The polymers are thermally stable up to 320 C, have an amorphous nature and agglomerated surface morphology. The benzene-water adsorption study was performed by soaking the polymer (adsorbent) in a supersaturated benzene-water mixture and the absorption changes with time were monitored by using UV-Vis absorption. The significant outcome from this work showed that the fluorinated-polymer has more capability for adsorption due to the presence of fluorine-hydrophobic sites while the non-fluorinated polymer has shown almost constant behavior with time.

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Assembly of Ni-Based Metal-Organic Framework through Interconnected Adamantane like Cages

Asha K.S.

Page No. 31-35

Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are promising class of crystalline materials that have attracted great research interest due to their extraordinary properties such as intriguing architecture and topology, unrivalled degree of tunability and exceptionally large surface area. A Nickel based micro scale Metal Organic Framework (MOF) [Ni(BPE)(BPDC)].4DMF where BPE is 1,2-Di(4-pyridyl) ethylene and BPDC is Biphenyl-4,4’-dicarboxylic acid, was synthesized through solvothermal synthesis method.

Structural characterization using X-ray diffraction techniques revealed the crystal to follow “dia” topology with repeating adamantane molecule like units. Another interesting feature observed in the structure was the four-fold interpenetration leading to a compact cage like assembly. The structure was made even more rigid by the presence of solvent molecules in the cage and it imparts stability to the structure.

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Application potential of chemically modified mixed banana and orange fruit peels as adsorbents for chromium (VI) from aqueous solution

Mamo Kebede, Gupta Neeraj K., Ananda Murthy H.C. and Wondemagegnehu Eshetu Bekele

Page No. 36-49

Mixed fruit peels of banana and orange modified by using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were investigated as adsorbent for hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) remediation. The powdered peels were mixed in 1:1 ratio to yield mixed banana and orange (RBO) after drying in an oven and powdered to pass a micro sieve (250 μm). A portion of this mixed powder was chemically modified by using H3PO4 to yield chemically modified mix of banana and orange (CMBO). The characterization techniques such as infrared, scanning electron and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic methods were employed to know the functional group, pore properties and composition of the adsorbents respectively. The residual concentration of chromium was measured at 540nm by UV-VIS spectrophotometer. SEM images confirmed the enhanced adsorption sites in the modified biomass adsorbents. The obtained optimum values of solution pH, dosage, initial concentration and contact time are 2, 0.5 g, 60 mg/L and 60 minutes for the adsorbents respectively. The maximum chromium removal efficiencies obtained for CMBO and RBO are 99.8% and 96.5% respectively. The kinetics data were best fitted to Freundlich adsorption isotherm model for both CMBO and RBO. Results indicated a good fit (R2 > 0.97) of the experimental data with the second-order kinetic equation. Moreover, the kinetics result correlated very well with pseudo second order process. The result confirmed that Cr (VI) removal efficiency of fruit peels was enhanced by mixing fruit peel biomass and subsequent chemical modification.

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Synthesis of novel 2-sulfonyl benzothiazole containing isoxazole derivatives as potent antioxidant and antibacterial agents

Ramesh Babu H., Ravinder M. and Sirassu Narsimha

Page No. 50-55

In the present study, a novel series of 2-sulfonyl benzo[d]thiazole 1,1-dioxide containing isoxazole derivatives have been synthesized using highly efficient and environmentally benign ionic liquids containing click synthesis. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-bacterial and antioxidant activities. The activity results showed that majority of compounds have shown good to moderate antibacterial and antioxidant activity compared with standard drugs.

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Anticancer, DNA Cleavage, Antioxidant and Antibacterial in vitro studies of synthesized Bio-active Fluorinated Schiff Base Metal Complexes

Palanisamy Priya, Poomalai Jayaseelan and Subramaniam Vedanayaki

Page No. 56-65

Novel mononuclear Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) complexes were synthesised with Schiff base derived from condensation of isophthalaldehyde with 4-fluoroaniline. The structural features of synthesised ligand and its mononuclear complexes were characterised by elemental analysis, molar conductance, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, ESI-MS, electronic spectra and magnetic measurements studies.

The analytical data and magnetic measurements revealed that the ligand co-ordinates with metals in M: 2L molar ratio having an octahedral geometry of complexes. The complexes exhibited good antimicrobial activity against the following micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus substilis and Escherichia coli) than the ligand. Antioxidant of DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl radical) scavenging assay of metal complexes showed more potential than ligand. Subsequently, all the prepared complexes can cleave by ct-DNA using gel electrophoresis method. The cytotoxic effects of MTT assay of Cu(II) complex were carried out by breast cancerous MCF-7 cell line.

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Probable impacts of climate change on capture fisheries of Anasagar, Ajmer, Rajasthan

Rose Sanchita and Rathore Abhimanyue Singh

Page No. 66-69

Constructed in the year 1135 -1150 AD, Anasagar is a small manmade lake having coordinates26.475°N and 74.625°E. This lake was constructed by Maharaja Arnoraja (alias Ana) mainly for storing rainwater from the catchment area. The lake has a water spread area of 200 ha with average depth of 4.4 m. The lake harbours about 15 types of commercially important fishes comprising of carps, catfishes and other miscellaneous varieties, however, the catch mainly comprises of Indian Major Carps: Cat fishes and Exotic carps namely Oreochromis mossambicus, Common carp Cyprinus carpio and Silver carp Hypophthalmichthyes molitrix.Notably,bulk of the fish landings is shared by Tilapias. This water body is auctioned for fishing purpose. From this lake the fishes are harvested with the use of gillnets and dragnets, in addition to longlines which are used for catching catfishes.

Based on certain water quality parameters and planktonic profiles, this lake appears to be attaining advance stage of eutrophy which is further validated from adequately good amount of fish harvest from this lake. This can be assigned to the abundant natural food supply available to the fishes of this lake. Agroclimatic conditions of Ajmer provide congenial environment for the growth of fish, however, with further rise in water temperature due to increased atmospheric temperature, any further increase in the water temperature may affect the ecosystem of this lake. This may result in intensification of algal blooms and aquatic weeds thereby deteriorating the lake ecosystem which would not be desirable for sustenance of this water body as well as for the aquatic life. In order to cope with the challenges of upcoming climatic conditions, suitable fishery management measures such as stock manipulation, calculation of MSY, fishing policy, assessment of trophic status and available food resources are suggested.

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Synthesis, Characterization and DNA interactions of Cd (II) complex of Schiff bases derived from 2-(methylthio)aniline

Mondal Biplab

Page No. 70-77

One mononuclear cadmium(II) complex of Schiff base, formulated as [Cd(L)Cl2] [where L = 2-pyridyl-N-(2'-methylthiophenyl)-methyleneimine (pmtpm)] has been isolated in pure form on the reaction of chloride salt of Cd(II) with ligand L. The coordination compound is formulated according to the chemical analysis, electronic, infrared, 1HNMR and mass spectra as well as molar conductance values.

The DNA-binding properties of cadmium complex have been investigated by spectroscopic methods and viscosity measurements. The results suggest that the complex binds to DNA in an intercalation mode.

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In-vitro α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity, Docking, DFT and Total antioxidant studies of Schiff base Metal complexes

Sudha A., Sasikumar G. and Askar Ali S.J.

Page No. 78-87

Schiff base ligands have been synthesized from 4-aminoantipyrine and 2,4,6- trihydroxy benzaldehyde to prepare Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes. The structural features were derived from their IR, UV-Visible, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-Mass Spectra spectral studies. On the basis of spectral studies, geometry of the complexes has been proposed. The density functional theory, antidiabetic, antioxidant activity and molecular docking studies of the Schiff base ligands and its complexes have been investigated.

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Fluorescence studies of Lanthanum (III) complexes of N, N′ bis-(alkyl/aryl)-substituted oxamides and phenanthroline bases

Bhat Vibha Vinayakumar and P.R. Chetan

Page No. 88-95

The photoluminescent properties of the Lanthanum complexes greatly depend on the nature and geometry of the coordinated ligands. The fluorescence ability is induced to the non-luminescent lanthanum metal complex by coordinating chromophoric ligands such as substituted oxamides. These oxamides containing auxochromic groups such as O, N through amide bonds sufficiently induce fluorescence to the La(III) metal ion through ligand to metal charge transfer. Of all the synthesized complexes, La(oxae)(phen)](NO3)3 was found to be highly luminescent complex with quantum efficiency reaching almost to unity.

Among all the tested La(III) complexes, mononuclear La(III) complexes show good fluorescence efficiency than hetero-binuclear La(III) complexes. Also, fluorescence efficiency of the complexes was found better in solid state rather than in DMF.

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Assessment of meteorological parameters for flat terrain condition by using AERMET, a pre-processor dispersion model

Karthick J., Samuel Devadoss R., Sharmila S. and Karthikeyan S.

Page No. 96-107

The transport of air pollutants into the ambient atmosphere totally depends upon meteorological factors. Both the vehicular emissions as well as the industrial emissions depend upon the meteorological parameters for their transportation, transformation, diffusion etc. The present study involves the assessment of meteorological factors at Manali industrial area. The tool used for the Assessment is AERMET, a Pre-Processor tool used in the AERMOD dispersion model. AERMET is a US-EPA regulatory model developed by American Meteorological Society.

The study was done by taking the various input Met data acquired from the Indian Met Department Chennai and Pune. The Input data are fed in the AERMET tool as per the prescribed format and executed in the execution tab like Surface data, Upper Air data, Site location parameters and the Land use tab. The major output results of the AERMET are two files namely SFC and PFL files. These two files are used as the Meteorological input file in the AERMOD dispersion model. The study period was conducted for the years 2015 to 2018. Ambient temperature variations for all the years were analysed based on the seasonal variations, In addition to that, wind profile distribution analysis was also done for the four consecutive years. Wind profile analysis includes wind movement directions, variations of wind intensity, standard deviation of wind distribution etc. Stability class conditions are also found by using the AERMET tool. Stability criteria is a phenomenon used to identify the Plume Behaviour of an industry located at the particular area.

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Antibacterial activity of extracts and compounds from the roots of Sesbania grandiflora (Leguminosae)

Noviany, Osman Hasnah, Mohamad Suriyati and Hadi Sutopo

Page No. 108-113

Four compounds betulinic acid, 7,4’-dihydroxy-2’-methoxyisoflavan, 3-hydroxy-9-methoxypterocarpan and 7-hydroxy-2’,4’-dimethoxyisoflavan were separated from the roots of Sesbania grandiflora. Structure elucidation of the compounds was determined using UV, IR, MS and NMR spectroscopic techniques. Root extracts and purified compounds were screened for the antibacterial activity by disc-diffusion method against nine bacterial. The activity results of the test components were shown to be dose dependent.

The methanol extract displayed the growth inhibition of Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus, Staphyloccus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The acetone extract inhibited the growth of S. pyogenes, B. cereus, S. aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and K. pneumoniae. The results partially justify the use of S. grandiflora root in traditional medicine to treat diseases caused by bacterial infection.

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Impact of Ni (II) on liquid-liquid separation of La (III) by TBP in petrofin

Satpathy Swagatika, Pradhan Sanghamitra, Swain Nilam and Mishra Sujata

Page No. 114-119

A systematic analysis has been performed to study the impact of Ni (II) on the recovery of La (III) from nitrate medium with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with petrofin. The extraction efficiency of TBP enhanced for La (III) in presence of Ni (II) with rise in nitrate concentration from 3.5 to 4.5 M. With rise in molarity of Ni (II) from 0.151 to 0.181g L-1, the extraction of La (III) progressively drops. Thermodynamics data obtained in the extraction studies show that the process is enthalpically driven and is associated with complex formation evident from negative entropy change.

Multiple linear regression method has been used to model the data obtained in the study. To acquire information about complexes extracted by TBP in petrofin from nitrate medium, FTIR studies were performed. The separation of La (III) and Ni (II) from nitrate solution is feasible by TBP in petrofin under several extraction conditions.

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Behavioral and biochemical responses of dimethoate in swiss albino mice and protective effect of Zizyphus nummularia

Khan Sabiha and Akhter Taslim

Page No. 120-122

From the starting of the human life, human has faced two major problems -problem of pest and disease control. Dimethoate which is an organophosphate pesticide, is extensively used in horticulture. It is a systemic insecticide and is responsible for adverse effects on cardio-vascular, immune, nervous, hepatic, reproductive and respiratory system. It is the major pollutant not only on earth but also on the aquatic environment. It has led to a variety of adverse effects on non-target species, therefore the present study deals with the protective effect of leaf extract of Zizyphus nummularia (LEZN) on dimethoate toxicity in swiss albino mice. Mice were divided into three groups –G1A, G2A and G3A respectively.

G1A group is a control group , G2A group is dimethoate treated group (1/5th LD 50 i.e. 30 mg dimethoate / kg bw) while group G3A is the group where animals were treated with 1/5th LD 50 (30 mg dimethoate /kg bw) and leaf extract of Zizyphus nummularia (250 mg/kg bw). Dimethoate and LEZN were given orally for the 30 days of treatment schedule. Dimethoate administration resulted in significant change in behavior and alteration in LDH and CHL level in swiss albino mice. Present study suggests that the leaf extract of Zizyphus nummularia contains many phyto-constituents which are the source of pharmaceuticals drug industries.

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Ionic liquid catalyzed ambient synthesis of cholest-6-eno-4H-pyron hybrids and their in vitro anti-cancer evaluation

Ega Jagadeesh Kumar, Arisha Samba Shiva Rao, Kola Ramesh and Siddoju Kavitha

Page No. 123-129

A simple and efficient synthesis of cholest-6-eno-4H-pyron hybrids (3a-3f) via recyclable ionic liquid (bmim]PF6) catalyzed reaction of few cholest-5-en-7-ones (1a-1c) with ethyl cyanoacetate (2a) and malononitrile (2b) under mild temperature in described. The structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed with the help of IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectral and CHN analysis. All the compounds have been further evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against three human cancer cell lines including MCF-7, A375 and ACHN using doxorubicin as standard drug.

Among all, two compounds 3c and 3f have shown slightly greater in vitro anticancer activity than the doxorubicin. The IC50 values for the more potent 3c and 3f compounds were observed in the range of 0.68 to 4.78 μM.

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DNA binding and antibacterial activity studies on transition metal complexes with 2-formylpyridine isonicotinoyl hydrazone

Dhanalakshmi D., Hussain Reddy K., Srinivasulu K., Anuja K., Nagamani Y.B. and Shravya P.

Page No. 130-140

Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes having the general formula ML2 (where, L= 2-formylpyridine isonicotinoyl hydrazone, FPINH ) have been synthesized and characterized based on mass spectra, molar conductivity, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectral data. The complexes are found to be non-electrolytes. FT-IR data suggest that the FPINH acts as uni-negative tridentate ligand. Electronic spectral data indicate that the complexes have octahedral structure. The copper complex is investigated using ESR spectroscopy. The spin Hamiltonian, orbital reduction and bonding parameters are calculated for the complex. The interactions of these complexes with calf thymus DNA have been investigated using absorption spectrophotometry.

The nickel complex binds more strongly than either copper, cobalt or zinc complexes. The metal complexes are screened for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacterial strains viz. gram–ve bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia) and gram +ve bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus). Nickel complex shows more activity than any other complexes under investigation.

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Modelling of Copper Adsorption onto Na-P Zeolite synthesized from Coal Fly Ash

Jain Payal, Pathak Richa, Shrivastava Priyanka and Dwivedi M.K.

Page No. 141-150

Zeolites are synthesized from coal fly ash by direct hydrothermal treatment with sodium hydroxide at different concentration ratios at varying temperatures of 350,450 and 550 °C with activation time of 12 hr. Characterization of coal fly ash and synthesized zeolite was done using XRF, XRD, SEM and FTIR. Adsorption of Cu (II) ion has been studied and the adsorption capacity of zeolite has been determined. The results of batch studies revealed that the adsorption of Cu (II) was strongly pH dependent and maximum Cu (II) removal was observed at equilibrium pH of 6.0. Optimum adsorbent dose and contact time were found to be 0.5 g/l and 240 minutes respectively.

Adsorption data have been correlated with various isotherm models and Langmuir isotherm was found to be best fitted model. Kinetic studies have been performed to have an idea of the mechanistic aspects of the process. The experimental results of this study clearly demonstrate that zeolite is suitable for adsorption of copper ion from aqueous solutions.

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Studies on preparation, characterization and solubility of some inclusion complexes of 4-Thiazolidinone derivatives with β-cyclodextrin

Dash Simanchal

Page No. 151-157

Present work was attempted with an objective to increase aqueous solubility of 4-thiazolidinone by cyclodextrin complexation techniques. 4-thiazolidinone shows very low aqueous solubility which results in the low oral bioavailability. Hence the it is necessary to prepare the inclusion complex to increase solubility and bio-accessibility of the parent compound.

A series of compounds of substituted 4-thiazolidinones and their respective inclusion complexes are prepared. Phase solubility diagram is constructed for selection of 1:1 stoichiometric ratio between compound and β-cyclodextrin. Characterization methods like physical, thermal and spectral (UV, IR and NMR) are used to know compounds and their inclusions. Except this, stability constant and free energy change of both the compound and inclusion complex justify its formation.

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Synthesis, growth and characterization of a single crystal of n-methyl urea malonic acid (NMUMA)

Hema N., Usha R. and Jayalakshmi D.

Page No. 158-164

An organic single crystal of N-methyl urea Malonic acid (NMUMA) was successfully grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The structure of grown crystal was elucidated from the X-ray diffraction study and it belongs to triclinic system with space group P-1. Functional groups of NMUMA have been identified by the Fourier transform infrared spectral studies. The optical transmittance spectrum of NMUMA was recorded.

The mechanical property of the grown crystal was studied using Vickers’s micro hardness studies. The laser damage threshold value of NMUMA was calculated using Nd: YAG laser. Photoconductivity studies were taken. The dielectric property of NMUMA crystal was revealed. The second order nonlinear coefficient of the grown crystal was also measured for NMUMA single crystal.

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Self- Assembled novel Anderson type polyoxometalate Na16[NiV6 .O24]15H2O : synthesis, characterization and catalytic application

Begam Gulnaz, Dey K.C. and Sharma V.

Page No. 165-169

A new self-assembled Anderson type polyoxometalate (POM) has been synthesized under hydrothermal condition at pH 3.6 and characterized by IR spectra, elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and thermo- gravimetric analysis (TG-DTA). The surface morphology has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM with EDS) along with molecular weight determination by employing cryoscopy method.

The compound has been employed as catalyst for acetylation of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and its reactivity has been compared.

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The antibiotics, waste and treatment plants: presenting a possibility of antibiotic resistance in bacteria of surface waters – A Review

Bhardwaj Richa and Singh Raj Kishore

Page No. 170-177

Antibiotic pollution is a much newer situation but reflection of a much longer problem of substance misuse. This review article focusses on the discussion of antibiotics as pollutants and their effect on the microbial population in terms of development of antibiotic resistance in the contaminated sites especially river waters. Also, this study highlights the impeding role of inefficient treatment by sewage treatment plants that may further aggravate the situation of antibiotic resistance.

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Graphene Foam: Next Generation Graphene Analogue

Butala Deepali and Waghmode Shobha

Page No. 178-188

Various allotropes of carbon like previously known diamond, graphite and amorphous carbon to the recently investigated fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene are studied worldwide. This review will give insight on the unique properties and methods of synthesis of one of the allotropes of carbon i.e. graphene and graphene-based hybrid materials especially 3D graphene. While studying 2D graphene more recently, the performance of 3 D graphene is disclosed. The review mainly focuses on the different synthetic processes used for the preparation of 3D graphene structures (foam, sponges, aerogels and hydrogels), the characterization and potential applications in various fields due to the unique properties.

The methodology for preparation is classified on two principles: one is direct synthesis starting from hydrocarbon other than grapheme oxide or use of graphene oxide and the other is metal-template assisted or non-template assembly. The characterizations compared over here are FTIR, XRD, RAMAN spectroscopy and SEM analysis. The various unique properties like huge porosity, higher electrical and thermal conductivity and large specific surface area lead to the applications in the fields like sensors, photocatalysis, supercapacitors, absorption and adsorption etc.

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