Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Soil PAH Rhizodegradation using Festuca arundinacea in an Urban Polluted Site in Trieste (Italy)

Sist Paola, Bandiera Antonella and Urbani Ranieri

Page No. 1-15

Soil is a complex system in which the plant rhizosphere acts as an efficient bioreactor able to accelerate the degradation of xenobiotic such as PAH. Rhizosphere microbial activities of an urban polluted site were monitored during the phytoremediation using Festuca arundinacea Schreber. The seasonal changes of microbial biomass, degradation specificity and efficiency of enzymatic processes of soil contaminated with a mixture of aged PAH, metals and organic pollutants were monitored and quantified. The mutagenic potential of soil extracts was assayed using different Salmonella typhimurium strains in order to assess the toxicity before and after phytoremediation.

The microbial ability to degrade PAH has been evaluated using phenanthrene as the only source of carbon for microbial cultures and there was a 60% reduction in the initial phenanthrene concentration. The results of this work suggest that the enhancement of persistent PAH degradation is favoured by a robust F. arundinacea growth and by an efficient bacterial extracellular enzyme production and activity in soil. The marked removal of carcinogenic PAH by F. arundinacea rhizosphere is particularly intriguing.

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Studies of oxidation rates of some secondary cyclic alcohols using KIO4 in acidic medium

Rana Chetana and Prabhu D.V.

Page No. 16-18

Oxidation of alcohols by organic oxidants has been reported in literature but there are few reports of the use of inorganic oxidants to oxidize alcohols to aldehydes/ketones. This study deals with the first order kinetics of the oxidation of the secondary cyclic alcohols, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol and cyclooctanol by KIO4 in acidic medium. These alcohols are used in the manufacture of perfumes, polymers, plasticizers and pharmaceuticals.

The progress of the oxidation was monitored by iodometric titration of the unreacted inorganic oxidant at regular time intervals. The oxidation rate increased with alcohol concentration but decreased with oxidant concentration. The thermodynamic activation parameters were determined from the change of oxidation rate with temperature (303-318K). A suitable reaction mechanism has been suggested for the oxidation of the cyclic alcohols under study. The oxidation rates of the cyclic alcohols follow the sequence: Cyclooctanol>Cyclopentanol> Cyclohexanol which has been explained by the effect of ring size of alcohols on their oxidation rates.

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Phyto-extraction of Chromium from Polluted Terrestrial Environments by Talinum triangulare (Ceylon Spinach) and the effect of External Chelators on the Chromium Extraction Potential

Jayalath K.G., De Silva R.C.L. and Deeyamulla M.P.

Page No. 19-24

The study was carried out to investigate the potential of Talinum triangulare (Ceylon Spinach) to remediate Cr contaminated soil under greenhouse conditions. In primary studies, T. triangulare showed significant resistance to Cr toxicity, however the amount of metal extracted was not sufficient enough to consider it as a potential phyto-extractor. Further pot experiments were conducted to find out the effect on Cr accumulation using EDTA as chelant under 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 mmol kg-1 chelator concentrations.

EDTA had virtually a significant effect on uptake of the metals by the plant and elevated Cr concentrations in plant organs as compared with the control. Optimum phytoextraction was observed when 2.0 mmol kg−1 EDTA was added with relatively high biomass production of plant species. EDTA modifies the uptake and the translocation of Cr by plants but the results concerning the uptake and the accumulation depend on the available Cr concentration in soil.

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Photocatalytic Degradation of Basic Fuchsine using Barium Chromate

Goswami Hiral, Ameta Suresh C. and Soni Dipti

Page No. 25-30

Dye wastes are major pollutants because they can be easily identified by the human eye. The photocatalytic degradation of basic fuschine dye can be photocatalytically degraded by BaCrO4. Photocatalytic degradation of basic fuchsine dye has been carried out under visible light in the presence of BaCrO4. The photocatalyst was characterized by means of Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic (FESEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS).

The effect of various parameters like pH, concentration of dye, amount of semiconductor and light intensity on the rate of degradation was studied. It was concluded that barium chromate has the highest catalytic activity in slightly acidic medium. A tentative mechanism for the reaction has been proposed.

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Physicochemical and biofunctional properties of Indonesian mangroves hydrolysates obtained from subcritical water hydrolysis

Pangestuti Ratih and Chun Byung Soo

Page No. 31-35

In the present study, different parts of mangroves (Sonneratia alba leaves - MG1, Sonneratia alba roots - MG2, Sonneratia alba fruit - MG3, Rhizhopora mucronata fruit- MG4, Rhizhopora lamarckii fruit- MG5) were obtained from Kendari, Indonesia. Mangroves were subjected to subcritical water extraction at 120 °C, pressure 30 bar for 10 min. Hydrolysate yield varied from 10.47% to 25.13% with the maximum yield obtained from MG1. Hydrolysates showed acidic pH with the lower pH obtained from MG2. The highest phenol contents were obtained from MG5 with the value of 40.81±0.43 mg/g. is based on genetic diversity being used to recognize relevant DNA barcode sequences.

The antioxidant capacity and biofunctional properties of mangroves hydrolysates varied significantly based on the sample materials with MG5 (R. lamarckii) showing the highest antioxidant activity. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in all hydrolysates. The results of our study suggest that tropical mangroves especially R. lamarckii and R. mucronata could be valorized efficiently as a source of bioactive material using subcritical water hydrolysis.

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Synthesis of nano crystalline ZnO: Reusability and its morphological effect on catalytic activity, yield and time of the reaction

Ravikumar Naik T.R., Shivashankar S.A. and Bindu P.J.

Page No. 36-39

A green, efficient methodolgy was developed for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles in aqueous ethanol media in the presence of microwave irradiation. The in-house synthesized ZnO was used for the synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines. The target molecules were obtained in good to excellent yield applying the current method. After completion of the reaction we extracted the ZnO catalyst characterized by powder XRD and SEM analysis. The result indicates that no such change was observed in powder XRD but there is a remarkable change in the ZnO morphology. Further we repeated the similar experiment to know the catalytic behavior and its frequently changes in the ZnO nanoparticles.

These results show that the reused crystalline ZnO morphology was changed and its particle size also increases. These factors influence on the catalytic activity, time and yield of the product.

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Study of the adsorption equilibrium of the Methylene blue from aqueous solution onto activated carbon of coula edulis nut shells

Mexent Zue Mve, Cle Mekui Me Mba, François Eba and Jean Aubin Ondo

Page No. 40-50

The adsorption capacity of Coula edulis activated carbon nut shell for removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was investigated in a batch system. The effects of the process variables such as agitation speed, system temperature and initial dye concentration on the adsorption process were studied. The extent of methylene blue dye adsorption increased with increase in agitation speed and initial dye concentration and system temperature increased with increase in time. Equilibrium data were best described by Freundlich adsorption isotherm and the mean free energy of sorption per methylene blue of sorbate was used to predict the physisorption.

The pseudo-first, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion adsorption isotherms models were used to describe the kinetic and mechanism of adsorption process. Kinetic study revealed an adsorption process following the pseudo-second order model and the mechanism indicated that the intraparticle diffusion is not the only limiting stage of the adsorption of methylene blue onto Coula edulis activated carbon surface. Finally, we note that this sorption is spontaneous (∆G < 0) and exothermic (∆H<0) reaction.

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Nanocomposite containing Bioceramic Hydroxy-Apatite, Biopolymer Gelatin and Metal Ions Yttrium and Cerium: Bioactive and Antibacterial Nature

Kanni Raj A.

Page No. 51-54

Hydroxy-Apatite (HA) is widely used as a bioceramic material, as it possesses its chemical and mineral phases analogous to that of human bone. When it is substituted with metal ions, its biological properties are improved. HA nanopowders show improved sinterability and enhanced densification owing to greater surface area, which enhances fracture toughness, as well as other mechanical properties. When yttrium and cerium ions are introduced, it shows high bioactivity and antibacterial activity. HA as biopolymer with gelatin is more bioactive and influences the particle nature of the sample.

This nanocomposite is easily made by hydrothermal method. Composition, crystallinity and morphology of nanocomposite are analyzed respectively by FT-IR, XRD and SEM-EDAX. Examination of in vitro bioactivity is done via soaking in simulated body fluid for various days and evaluation of antibacterial activity is done against prokaryotic strains. Fabricated nanocomposite is crystalline with particles size around 100nm which is good for biomedical applications with good bone bonding ability and antibacterial property.

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Environment impact by recovery boiler’s secondary air in an integrated pulp and paper industry

Sudarshan K., Asokan S., Ragunathan R., Venkateshwaran R., Subramanian S. and Vinotha S.

Page No. 55-60

Oxygen plays a vital role for firing the black liquor in chemical recovery boilers. This work deals about the importance of oxygen from secondary air blower and its impact on quality of the recovered product and adverse impact on the environment. Due to less supply of secondary air into the recovery boiler leads to have increased carbonate content from 0.19% to 36.0% and decreased sulphate content from 73.6% to 28.0% in the electrostatic precipitator ash. Further it has also impacted the quality of smelt followed by the white liquor sulphidity which decreased from 25.0% to 15.0%.

Moreover, it has adversely impacted the hydrogen sulphide formation in atmosphere. Once the secondary air supply is normalized, the above discussed issues were resolved and the required quality of fly ash and smelt were obtained. Further, hydrogen sulphide emissions were controlled in the ambient air.

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In vitro Evaluation of Stem Extracts of Polycarpeae aurea Wight and Arn for their Total Phenolic Content, Total Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Potency

Deepak Raj K., Ranjit P. and Archana Giri

Page No. 61-68

The aim of this study is to investigate the stem extracts of P. aurea Wight and Arn in various organic solvents for their total phenolic, flavonoid contents and also their antioxidant potency. The highest total phenolic content of the stem extracts was recorded in acetone extract (775.6±8.6) to the lowest in hexane extract (196.16±8.9) (mg GAE/gm) and the highest total flavonoid content was recorded in acetone extract (300.01±5.2) to the lowest recorded in hexane extract (104.56±6.3) (mg QT/gm). Antioxidant potency of various stem extracts was evaluated by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma) and Nitric oxide scavenging.

IC50 values for DPPH and NO scavenging activity were recorded as 73.29±3.1 and 87.97±2.9 respectively for stem extracts of P. aurea Wight and Arn in various organic solvents namely acetone, methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane. These values are the lowest among various extracts evaluated and showed potent antioxidant properties. The greater concentration of total phenolics and total flavonoids in acetone stem extracts directs to their higher antioxidant activities. Results from the current studies recommend that acetone stem extract of P. aurea Wight and Arn is a promising source of natural free radical scavengers.

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Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal, morphological and antimicrobial discussions on Sc(III), Mo(V) and Hf(IV) complexes with procaine hydrochloride drug

El-Habeeb Abeer A.

Page No. 69-80

In alkaline media, three new solid complexes were isolated by the chemical reactions between the procaine hydrochloride (PRC-HCl) drug and scandium(III), molybdenum(V) and hafnium(IV) chloride salts with 1:2 molar ratio. Infrared spectral analysis displayed that procaine drug coordinated to the respected ScIII, MoV and HfIV metal ions as a monodentate neutral ligand via the nitrogen atom of amino group. The chemical formulas of PRC complexes are [Sc(PRC)2(Cl)3(H2O)] (I), [Mo(PRC)2(Cl)4 (H2O)].Cl.2H2O (II) and [Hf(PRC)2(Cl)3(H2O)2].Cl (III).

The three coordination complexes were well discussed using different analysis such as carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, FTIR, electronic spectra, conductance, effective magnetic moments and thermogravimetric measurements. The metallic form of scandium(III), molybdenum (V) and hafnium(IV) is the final residual product associated after the thermal decomposition of the synthesized PRC complexes. Biological screening of the complexes reveals that the PRC metal complexes show significant activity against microorganisms.

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Facile synthesis of nickel nanoparticles and its efficient dye degradation

Sunny Aswathy Maria, Arulraj James and Datta Riya

Page No. 81-85

The present investigation involves the synthesis of nickel (Ni) nanoparticles (NPs) by the chemical reduction of nickel chloride using hydrazine hydrate without the need for an inert atmosphere from an external source. The photocatalytic activity, structure and morphology of the NPs were studied by employing UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Degradation of methylene blue(MB) and rhodamine B(Rh-B) dyes using Ni NPs was investigated to see the feasibility in degrading these dyes from polluted water at low cost. Ni NPs showed a good photocatalytic activity of 84.1% under visible light for the degradation of MB when compared to Rh-B which showed an efficiency of 47.3 %.

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Inhibition of Elettaria cardamomum extract on the calcium carbonate formation

Dalia I. Saleh, Mahmoud Samy F., Al-Nemary S. and Al-Nemary R.

Page No. 86-91

The medicinal plant Elettaria cardamomum has various beneficial effects for human. Calcium carbonate formation rate was studied under different conditions of temperature, ionic strength, weight of seed, steering rate and degrees of super saturation. Also, the effect of each condition was studied. E. cardamomum is extracted at 250C and at 100 0C.

The effect of different concentrations of the E. cardamomum extraction on the rate of CaCO3 formation was studied kinetically at 25ºC, I = 0.09 mole dm-3 and pH = 6.5. It was found that E. cardamomum extracts acted as good inhibitor for formation of CaCO3, and the mechanism of reaction was surface control mechanism. The boiled extract was more effective on the formation process than the extract at 250C. X ray, SEM, and EDX analysis were performed.

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Preparation and Performance of Poly (Dodecyl Acrylate) as Oil Spill Adsorpant

Salah F. Abdellah Ali and Hassan W.K.

Page No. 92-101

This study investigated the preparation and characterization of poly dodecyl acrylate (PDA) to be used in oil spill removing applications. PDA was prepared by solution polymerization taking into account the effect of monomer concentration, polymerization time, initiator concentration, cross-linker concentration and polymerization temperature on the yield of dodecyl acrylate to optimize the polymerization conditions. Thermal analysis has been done using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in the range of 25oC to 600oC and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the range of 35oC to 400oC.

The results showed that PDA is thermally stable to satisfy the requirements of oil spill cleanup applications. The chemical structure of PDA was confirmed using Fourier Transform Infrared analysis (FTIR). The morphology of PDA that controls its ability to absorb oil spills was observed using Scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that PDA has the ability to absorb gasoline, kerosene, diesel, xylene, octanol and Mobil oil. Sorption capacity of the polymer in dry system, static system and dynamic system in addition to its reusability of sorbent several times was studied.

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One-pot synthesis and insecticidal activity of 5-amino-1-aryl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonitriles

Plem Silvana Cristina, Machuca Laura Marcela, Gutierrez Carolina Guadalupe, Coll Aráoz MaríaVictoria, Van Nieuwenhove Guido Alejandro, Virla Eduardo Gabriel and Murguía Marcelo César

Page No. 102-108

Synthesis of 5-amino-1-aryl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonitriles was performed by direct condensation of (ethoxymethylene)malononitrile and aryl hydrazines. The resulting N,N-containing heterocycles possess insecticidal properties relative to microlepidoptera species, plant phatogens. The insecticidal activity of four novel synthetic N-aryl pyrazoles to Tuta absoluta larvae was assessed. Fipronil, a well-known aryl pyrazole insecticide, was also tested as the positive control. A generalized linear model reported significant differences in efficacy and tomato leaf consumption among the different treatments.

Fipronil treatment was the most effective one (100% mortality after 48 h), followed by 5-amino-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile treatment (3c) (75% mortality after 48 h) and 5-amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile treatment (3b) (60% mortality after 48 h). These compounds, with simpler structures than Fipronil could be used as novel insecticides.

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Phytochemical Screening and in vitro antioxidant and antiurolithic activities of Coffea arabica

Magharbeh Mousa K., Al-Hujran Tayel A., Al-Jaafreh Ahmad M., Alfarrayeh Ibrahim I. and Ebada Sherif S.

Page No. 109-114

Kidney stone formation (aka urolithiasis) is an important prevalent condition in urological practice with a high recurrence rate. Etiologically, urolithiasis comprises a complex process resulting from a succession of physicochemical events starting with supersaturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation and finally retention anywhere within the kidneys. Epidemiologically, calcium oxalate is recognized as the predominant mineral in the majority of kidney stones where the mechanism of crystallization process is the main idea in urolithiasis. In the present study, effects of different subfractions derived from Coffea arabica green beans methanol extract were assessed based on the crystallization of calcium oxalate. Their effects on size, number and type of calcium oxalate crystals were indicated.

Results revealed that ethyl acetate fraction possesses the highest concentration of calcium ion that means the strongest effect on dissolving calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals compared with cystone. In addition, results confirmed that Coffea arabica extract has antiurolithic activity via reducing crystal size through stimulating the formation of calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) crystals out from calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). The reduction of crystal size along with the diuretic effect enables the extract to play an important role in reducing the incidence of urolithiasis and facilitating their elimination.

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Analyzing Seasonal Variation of Soil Properties and Interpolating in GIS Environment for a Cluster of Five Villages of Telangana State, India

Abhilash Maryada and Thatiparthi Vijaya Lakshmi

Page No. 115-124

Soil properties are key factors for agriculture and the environment. Land productivity is lost due to lack of proper land management causing degradation of soil. By evaluating the variation of soil properties, assessment can be done for the ruined land. In the present study, soil properties are analyzed and a map showing their seasonal variation is prepared in a GIS environment. Using a portable GPS unit, 11 random samples were collected from the cluster of an area of 46.41 sq km of five villages of Telangana state.

Soil parameters like pH, N, P, K, EC, organic matter, moisture content and water holding capacity are measured for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon. A comparative study is done for soil properties on pre and post monsoon. Spatial maps of soil properties were prepared by using ordinary kriging technique in ArcGIS.

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Feasibility Study of Low Salinity Waterflooding in a part of Cambay Basin, India

Medhi Nayan

Page No. 125-133

Low Salinity Waterflooding (LSW) is an eco-friendly and low cost enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. Earlier laboratory tests and field trials have shown that injecting chemically modified water can lead to incremental oil recovery1-3. The aim is to study the feasibility of LSW in a part of Cambay Basin of India. The reservoir rock sample, crude oil sample and formation brine data were collected for this study from the study area. The analysis of crude oil shows the presence of resin (06.54 %w/w) and asphaltene (0.23 %w/w) which are the pre-requisite for obtaining the LoSal Effect (LSE). The study shows a low value of pH (<7) along with the presence of calcium ion in the formation of brine which is another important parameter required for implementing LSW. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) study of the rock samples show the presence of kaolinite and illite clays along with pyrite, pyrite-illite, quartz, magnesite and orthoclase.

Earlier studies have found that kaolinite migration occurs during LSW which improves the oil recovery efficiency by wettability alteration of reservoir rock4, enhancing Sweep Efficiency5 and reducing Oil-Water Interfacial Tension6. Also, sometimes illite tends to migrate along with the flowing fluid7. Apart from those, pyrite plays a major role in the wettability modification under low salinity environment. Thus, polar compounds (resin and asphaltene) in crude oil, low value of pH and divalent cation in the formation brine and kaolinite, illite and pyrite in the reservoir rock make the study area a suitable candidate for LSW.

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4-[(E)-(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl)diazenyl]-N-(6-methoxyppyridazine-3-yl)benzene-1-sulphonamide: A new antivirucidal agent for Herpes Simplex virus type-1

Kumar Ashish, Tiwari Brij Kishore, Mishra Mamta and Mishra R.K.

Page No. 134-139

In order to identify new potential antiviral agent for herpes simplex virus type-1, compound 4-[(E)-(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl)diazenyl]-N-(6-methoxyppyridazine-3-yl)benzene-1-sulphonamide was synthesized by condensation of 4-hyroxy coumarin and diazonium salt of sulphapyridizine. Structure of synthesized compound was identified by 1H and 13C-NMR spectral studies. On evaluation of antivirucidal activity, it was found that at concentration lower than its cytotoxic concentration, compound acts as antivirucidal agent for HSV-1.

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Synthesis, Antimicrobial Screening and Docking Rationale of Novel 2-substituted-mercaptoimidazo[4,5-c]quinolines

Mahmoud Z., Tahlan K. and Daneshtalab M.

Page No. 140-148

A series of novel 2-substitutedmercaptoimidazo[4,5-c]quinoline derivatives (IQs) were synthesized using both conventional and microwave techniques. The antimicrobial activities of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Broth dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using the microplate-based serial dilution technique. None of the compounds showed activity in comparison to the reference standards.

In order to rationalize the lack of antibacterial activity, a preliminary in silico docking study was performed against bacterial DNA gyrase (2XCT), topoisomerase IV (2XKK) and RNA polymerase (1YNN).

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Evaluation of phytochemical and in vitro antimicrobial activity of leaf, stem and root of Bryophillum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken

Ezeabara Chinelo A., Chukwuedo Ngozika A. and Chukwudi Henry C.

Page No. 149-156

Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out and antimicrobial activites of leaf, stem and root extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken against some microorganisms were tested using standard techniques. Significance was measured using Duncan's multiple range test. The plant had a considerable high level of alkaloids with highest value in the leaf (2.08±0.02 mg/100g). The stem extract had the highest value of saponins (0.81±0.014 mg/100g) and the root extract had the highest level of sterols (0.49±0.014 mg/100g).

The leaf, stem and root extracts were highly active against Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer respectively. This study therefore revealed that the leaf, stem and root extracts of B. pinnatum showed both antibacterial and antifungal activities, however, these parts are more effective as antifungal, hence suggesting its potential in ethnobotany as drug as well as in synthesis of novel antifungal drugs.

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Characteristics and biological activities of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.)

Dušica Ilić P., Dragan Troter Z., Nataša Vitošević A., Tamara Popović O. and Nikolić Vesna D.

Page No. 157-160

The family Lamiaceae includes a large number of cosmopolitan species including the species Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Thymus serpyllum (wild thyme) characterized by the presence of essential oils and phenolic compounds. Thymus serpyllum L. is a perennial semi-herbaceous plant, often used in ethnomedicine. It represents a natural resource for the pharmaceutical industry.

In addition, it can be a source of natural antioxidants, nutritional supplements, or components of functional food in the food industry. Also, its essential oil is becoming more popular as an important product.

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Investigation of diclofenac toxicity on ionic regulation of plasma and Gill Atpase activity of fish

Subbiah Shunmugam, Baskaran Rathinasamy and Balamurugan Shanmugaraj

Page No. 161-166

The current review is focusing on the complete changes induced by the drug in the ionic concentration of fishes. Acute and chronic contact of fish to the drug and its related compounds induced either increased or decreased concentration of ionic regulation in plasma as well as gill ATPase activity. The probable gadgets engaged in the alteration in the concentrations of the ions are discussed. In our review, fish could be a appropriate biomarker for diclofenac exposure and ATPase as exact early vital warning aquatic toxicology parameters.

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Bioconversion of Lignocellulose materials using different pre-treatment strategies

Yadav Meera, Rai Nivedita, Yadav Hardeo Singh and Hazarika Anindita

Page No. 167-183

Lignocellulose waste is the second most abundant resource on the earth and is renewable alternative to depleting oil reserves. Lignin component of lignocellulosic materials imparts resistance to its degradation. Ligninolytic enzyme delignifies the lignin and makes carbohydrates easily available for more efficient bioconversions. White rot fungi are known to produce ligninolytic enzymes. Ligninolytic enzymes have shown potential applications in a large number of industries related to the chemical, fuels, food, agriculture, paper, textile and cosmetics. The reaction occurs eco-friendly and is energy saving. Due to increasing demand of energy consumption, depletion of fossil fuels and increased environmental protection concern have shifted focus towards biofuels generation and its use.

The main challenge for the conversion of biomass to biofuels is to achieve substantial yields, which is cost competitive with the current fossil based fuels. Micro-organisms such as fungi are proposed to be good strains for bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues to low molecular weight fractions and provide great potential to be used at industrial scales. This study focusses on the reports which are available on lignocellulosic waste materials bioconversion into biofuels using different methods and modern ecofriendly techniques by the ligninolytic enzymes produced by different fungal species.

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