Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Desorption of 3d transition metal ions from NR/PEO block copolymer chelating exchanger

Mrudula M.S. and Gopinathan Nair M.R.

Page No. 1-5

Polyethylene oxide (PEO) is a water-soluble polymer which can coordinate with metal ions in solution through etheric oxygen atoms. However, the solubility properties cause practical difficulties in its use as a sorbent material. Block copolymerization of PEO with natural rubber segments yields an amphiphilic material capable of forming excellent gel membrane which is a reasonably good material in terms of dimensional stability suitable for sorption studies in aqueous medium. The results obtained in the complexation studies of the block copolymer (BC) with selected 3d transition metal ions viz. Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) in non-competitive environment suggest that this polymer can be effectively used as an adsorbent for the removal of metal ions in waste water treatment. The adsorbed ions should be desorbed in order to regenerate the sorbent for reuse. Desorption experiments show that under pH 6 at ambient conditions, the extent of desorption is low and varies as BC – Fe(III) > BC – Cu(II) > BC – Ni(II) > BC – Zn(II) > BC – Co(II) > BC – Mn(II).

Desorption ratio increases as the pH decreases. Under pH 4, the overall desorption ratio increased to a higher extent keeping the trend same as above. Similar results were obtained for pH 2 also. As the pH decreases to 1, it is found that desorption ratio of all the metal ions reaches almost the highest value about 98% irrespective of the type of metal ion. The equilibrium desorption time for Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) ion complexes is found to be 150-170 hours. On the other hand, Fe(III) and Cu(II) ion complexes took a slightly shorter period viz. 134-147 hours to undergo desorption.

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Soil Adsorption Study of Malathion Insecticide and predicting its Leaching Potential

Kashyap Rajinder Kumar and Sharma Devender Kumar

Page No. 6-11

Understanding the fate of pesticides in soil is helpful in the assessment of their environmental behaviour which is vital for ensuring the safe use of these chemicals. Malathion, a wide spectrum organophosphorous insecticide, has been determined by a differential pulse polarographic method with a view to study its leaching potential and consequently surface and ground water contamination.

The method is based upon its microwave assisted alkaline hydrolysis to dimethyl dithiophosphate which upon reaction with copper(II) perchlorate in 1:2 stoichiometric ratio forms a copper(III) dimethyldithiophosphate complex that exhibits an analytical useful diffusion controlled peak at -50 mV (vs SCE). The leaching potential based on the adsorption of malathion on four soils of different characteristics has been evaluated by groundwater ubiquity score (GUS) and the values obtained are in the range 1.36-1.64 classifying it as non-leaching pesticide.

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Morphological and Biochemical Effects of Zinc and Molybdenum elements on in vitro shoot multiplication in Amsonia orientalis

Yonca Duman

Page No. 12-19

This study investigated the morphological and biochemical effects of zinc and molybdenum metals on in vitro shoot multiplication in Amsonia orientalis aided by 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). All concentrations of both metals decreased the average number and length of shoots compared to the control group with 1.0 mg l−1 of BAP. The application of heavy metals caused changes in antioxidant enzyme activities. In the presence of both heavy metals, superoxide dismutase activity decreased under conditions of increased stress while peroxidase activities were observed to have increased.

By contrast, no significant changes in catalase activities were observed in the presence of zinc while increases were seen in the presence of molybdenum depending on the concentration. These results were supported by electrophoresis. It was observed that the amounts of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in A. oriental is increased under all stress conditions. The results indicate that the plant’s peroxidase and catalase enzymes play primary roles against heavy metal stress. The introduction of BAP can help partially alleviate the negative effects of high concentrations of such heavy metals on the growth of the plant.

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Regression studies of binary complexes of bipyridyl with transition metal ions

Shaikh Abdul Rahim, Khan A.J. and Farooqui Mazahar

Page No. 20-23

The study deals with interaction between chosen transition metal ions with bipyridyl in aqueous media at temperature 27OC pH metrically by Irving Rossoti method. NaNO3 was used for maintaining ionic strength. Metal to ligand ratio is 1:2. Economical and easily available reagents NaNO3 and HNO3 are applied for the work. pKa and logK values and order of stability are evaluated. Data obtained is subjected to regression analysis to find out the relationship between the stability values and physical properties of metal ions.

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Antidiabetic activity of Tenebrio molitor linn powder by oral glucose tolerance test to swiss webster male mice

Erwin Samsul, Andreanus A. Soemardji, Siti Kusmardiyani and Hadi Kuncoro

Page No. 24-27

Tenebrio molitor Linn. is used by Indonesian people as a drug to reduce blood sugar levels. This study aims to examine the activity of Tenebrio molitor powder as antidiabetic. This research method used male mice with bodyweight 25-25 g, ages 2-3 months and divided into five groups with five male mice for each group. One group as negative control used CMC Na (1%) and one group as comparison control used Glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). This experiment used Oral Glucose Tolerance test procedure with modification. Administration of Tenebrio molitor powder dose 90 mg/kg BW and 45 mg/kg BW reduced blood glucose levels for 120 minutes with percentage 24,2% and 27,7% on glucose load, 22,4% and 21,9% on sucrose load, 17% and 21,7% on amylum load.

The percentage decrease in blood glucose levels was lower than the comparison group of glibenclamide (5 mg/kg BW) with a percentage of 36,8% in glucose load, 23,2% in sucrose load and 22,6% in amylum load. Based on the evaluation results of the Tenebrio molitor powder with glucose tolerance method at doses 45 and 90 mg/kg BW had antidiabetic activity, but its strength was lower compared to glibenclamide.

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Synthesis and characterization of novel swollen cross-linked poly acrylic acid

Patel Zalak J., Patel Mukesh C., Chatrabhuji Parimal M., Patel Dharmesh R., Patel Viral A. and Kumbhani Jasmin H.

Page No. 28-32

A cross-linked poly acrylic acid super absorbent polymer has been successfully synthesized by reacting poly allyl sucrose, styrene and acrylic acid batch charging in aqueous medium under the occurrence of nitrogen atmosphere. This novel method is profitable in terms of reducing the toxicity and is fast and economical than available methods. The morphological structure of the synthesized polymer was studied by SEM which showed layered self-assembled structures.

Using FTIR, the characteristically involved functional groups of the functionalized polymers were identified. To analyze the thermal character of the prepared polymer in terms of their endothermic or exothermic behavior, TGA and DSC techniques were employed. The synthesized materials could be used as water-absorbing agents in the field of material science and technology.

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Optimization involving chemistry, mechanism of esterification process of acetic acid using response surface methodology for the microcontroller based automated reactor with sulfonated carbon as catalyst

Bhusari Amol A., Mazumdar Bidyut, Rathod Ajit P. and Sonawane Shriram S.

Page No. 33-41

The present study deals with the determination of optimal values of operating parameters such as silica gel weight (Ws), hot air temperature (Th) and molar ratio (M) leading to the continuous removal of water and thereby the best conversion (Xa) of acetic acid using response surface methodology (RSM). The unique concept of microcontroller based automated reactor (MBAR) accompanied by silica gel, moisture sensors, solenoid valves was used in the esterification of acetic acid in this study. The water removal along with high conversion beyond the equilibrium was achieved by adsorption on the surface of silica gel selectively. The heterogeneous sulfonated carbon catalyst was used for esterification.

The optimal values of (Xa), (Ws), (Th) and (M) respectively 87.2 %, 37 gm, 850C and 2 were reported by using newly invented MBAR. Another unique feature added to the novelty of MBAR is that water removal is achieved continuously in the regard that two limbs of silica gel bed are operated in rotation in such a way that when one is in operation, the other is regenerated during its idle time. The design of experiment (DoE) and full factorial design method of RSM 7.0 were carried out to investigate the interaction among the independent variables. A significant relationship between silica gel weight, hot air temperature and molar ratio has been noticed.

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Removal of cadmium from contaminated soil using soapnut, shikakai, rhamnolipids and EDTA

Ugwu Elijah Chibuzo, Adebayo Adeloye and Sengupta Bhaskar

Page No. 42-52

This study investigates the operating variables of washing experiments involving four washing agents [Sapindus mukorossi (soapnut), Acacia concinna (shikakai), rhamnolipids and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)] for removal of cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soil in laboratory scale batch and column experiments. The operating variables included: time (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hrs), soil-solution ratio (1:10, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40 and 1:50), surfactant concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6% by mass) and the pH of the washing solution (3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5 and 5.5). Results show that the removal efficiency increases with increase in surfactant concentration, soil-solution ratio as well as washing time, but decreases as pH increases.

It was also observed that the maximum removal efficiencies of 84.9% for soapnut, 87.4% for shikakai and 68.9% were obtained when 0.01M EDTA was mixed with biosurfactants at different concentrations. In column experiments, the highest removal efficiencies of 74.05%, 73.08%, 69.07%, 63.08% and 12.78% were obtained for EDTA, soapnut, shikakai, rhamnolipids and distilled water. The overall performance of the washing process indicates that saponin utilization in soil washing is much more effective than rhamnolipid.

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Identification of flavonoid compounds from ethyl acetate extract of Kalanchoe millotii (Crassulaceae) and endodontics antibacterial activity

Yenny Febriani Yun, Issana Pramordha Wardhani, Nurhabibah Alawiyah, Dewi Meliati Agustini, Lilis Siti Aisyah, Sari Purbaya, Unang Supratman and Yoshihito Shiono

Page No. 53-55

Two flavonoids have been isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Kalanchoe millotii and identified as quercetin (1) and eriodictyol (2). Isolation was carried out by the combination of column chromatography on silica gel and preparative HPLC. The molecular structures of both compounds (1-2) were identified using spectroscopic data (UV, IR, MS and NMR). Antibacterial assays done on the ethyl acetate extract and compounds 1-2, were carried out on Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

The extract showed MIC values at 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL against S. mutans and P. aeruginosa respectively while the their MBC value was 0.25 for both bacteria. Compounds 1 and 2 have the same MIC and MBC values on both bacteria at 1 mg/mL. The ethyl acetate extract therefore is more active as antibacterials than the isolated compounds.

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Recurrence of zinc oxide photocatalyst in the decolorisation of malachite green by photo oxidation method

Kavitha C.

Page No. 56-62

This study reveals the recurrence of zinc oxide photo catalyst in the decolourisation of malachite green by the photo oxidation process. Variation of the rate of decolourisation of dye was analysed by the process variables such as initial dye concentration, irradiation time, catalyst loading, pH of the bath solution and the percentage of interfering hydroxyl scavengers. The catalytic activity of zinc oxide was retained and reused without much loss in its activity.

UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the amount of adsorption which is used to enumerate the percentage of decolourisation of malachite green by photo oxidation process.

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Enhanced Separation of Gold and Silver from Thiosulfate Leach Liquor on Activated Carbon

Mahmoud Mohamed H.H. and Hessien Mahmoud M.

Page No. 63-70

Thiosulfate (TS) is an efficient lixiviant of gold and silver, but the poor recovery on activated carbon (AC) is the reason for the limited industrial applications. Thiourea (TU) complexes of gold and silver are known to have higher adsorption affinity on AC compared with those of TS. The present work combines the TS and the TU technologies to get benefit from advantages of both of them. TU was added to the ammoniacal TS leach liquor to improve the adsorption on AC. The adsorption profiles from TS leach liquor on AC greatly improved in the presence of 0.2 M TU and depressed in the presence of additional 0.2 M TS. The adsorption efficiency was continuously increasing with increasing the TU concentrations, from 0.0 M to 0.5 M, almost complete adsorption was attained with 0.5 M TU after 90 min. At higher TU concentration, the adsorption declined. EDXRF chart confirmed the adsorption of gold and silver on AC. A process flowsheet was designed for an integrated TS leaching and recovery of gold and silver from Al Amar tailing including adsorption on AC in presence of TU as an adsorption aid.

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Effect of zinc sulphate on antimicrobial activity of Clitoria ternatea

Kumar Dinesh, Gajbhiye Archana, Nagda Vipin and Arora Asha

Page No. 71-76

In the present study, the antimicrobial activity in crude extracts of roots of C. ternatea and synergistic effect of zinc sulphate on antimicrobial activity of root extract was evaluated. The root extracts were prepared using water and methanol. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured by broth dilution method. Both crude extracts i.e. aqueous and methanolic showed positive antimicrobial activity at concentration more than 10mg/ml. The combination of methanolic extract (50mg/ml) and zinc sulphate (1% w/v) exerted an elevated effect on antimicrobial activity by approximately 20% as compared to that of only crude methanolic extract against all three pathogenic bacteria.

In a combination of aqueous root extract and of zinc sulphate the antibacterial activity did not show any major change. The MIC of methanolic extract was found to be 0.125±0.03, 2.5±0.05 and 5.00±0.03 mg/ml against E.coli, S.aureus and K. pneumoniae. The significance of results was confirmed from the p-value which was found to be <0.01. The antibacterial activity of methanolic root extract from C. ternatea exhibits maximum bacterial growth inhibition compared to aqueous root extract. Significant synergistic effect between methanol extract and zinc sulphate was obtained to inhibit the growth of all selected bacterial isolates.

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Cytotoxic activity of chemical constituents from tree bark of Calophyllum castaneum

Wartono Muhammad W., Juliawaty Lia D. and Syah Yana M.

Page No. 77-80

Four phenolic compounds were isolated from the tree barks of Calophyllum castaneum and were identified based on their NMR data as calofolic acid D (1), calofolic acid D methyl ester (2), calofolic acid B (3) and caloxanthone C (4). Preliminary cytotoxic evaluation of these compounds against P-388 cells showed that only compound 4 that showed significant inhibitory properties, while compounds 1-3 were moderately active. These results suggested that 3 chromanones (1-3) are less active than xanthone (4) derivatives.

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Kinetics of Oxidation of Acetanilide by Imidazolium fluorochromate

Vellaisamy M. and Sharmila M.

Page No. 81-86

The kinetics of oxidation of acetanilide by imidazolium fluorochromate (IFC) has been studied in 65% water - 35% acetic acid medium. The reaction is of first order with respect to imidazolium fluorochromate, hydrogen ion concentration and fractional order with respect to acetanilide. The rate of the reaction increases with decrease in dielectric constant of solvent suggests ion-dipole interaction. Increase in ionic strength by the addition of sodium perchlorate has no effect on the rate constant.

There is no polymerization with acrylonitrile and absence of free radical mechanism was proved. Azobenzene has been identified as a product of oxidation. The rate of the reaction has been conducted at five different temperatures and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. Based on the kinetic results and product analysis, a plausible mechanism has been proposed.

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Green synthesis of Fungal Chitin and Chitosan and their Characterization Studies

Gachhi Dhanashree and Hungund Basavaraj

Page No. 87-98

Chitin is a homopolymer of N-acetly-D-glucosamine (Glc-NAc) residue linked by β-1-4 bonds and is the most widespread renewable natural biopolymer. Chitosan is deacetylated derivative of chitin and is an amino polysaccharide. In the present study, an effort is made to extract the chitin and chitosan of low molecular weight from fungi. The standard fungal strains Trichoderma reesei (NCIM 1052) and Aspergillus awamori (NCIM 861) were selected for the extensive study. The two way method of extraction using dilute sulfuric acid was used to extract chitin and chitosan from the cell wall of the fungi. The yield of chitin from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus awamori was 903 mg/L and 1010 mg/L respectively. Similarly, the yield of chitosan from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus awamori was 130 mg/L and 136 mg/L respectively. Profiling of growth parameters such as dry cell biomass, utilization of carbon source (dextrose) and pH was studied. FTIR of chitin and chitosan was evaluated for wavelength bands with respect to the –OH, -NH, C=O, -CN groups for the identification of material nature.

Using FTIR data, molecular properties of chitin and chitosan such as degree of deacetylation (DD%), molecular weight and viscosity were evaluated. The degree of deacetylation of chitin and chitosan extracted from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus awamori was 16.76%, 17.12%, 69.69% and 72.45% respectively indicating maximum conversion of chitin to chitosan. Molecular weights of chitin and chitosan from the fungi were 10.35×106 Da, 4.23×106 Da and 8.5×105 Da, 3.3×105 Da respectively. The specific viscosities measured were 7.01 cP, 5.06 cP, 4.56 cP and 2.84 cP respectively for the chitin and chitosan. X-Ray diffraction patterns of chitin and chitosan indicated the crystalline nature of the materials. Material characterization was also performed using NMR, TGA, DSC and SEM studies.

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Effect of Aniline as Corrosion inhibitor on the Corrosion of Aluminium in Hydrochloric Acid Solution

Husaini Musa, Usman Bishir, Ibrahim Muhammad Adamu and Ibrahim Muhammad Bashir

Page No. 99-106

The effect of aniline as an organic inhibitor on the corrosion of aluminum in hydrochloric acid solution was studied at different temperature using weight loss method. The inhibitor and corrosion product were characterized using Fourier transform infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis.

The results of the study reveal that aluminum corrosion was inhibited at different concentrations of the inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing inhibitor concentration but decreased with rising temperature. Activation energy was found to be 20.48 kJ mol-1 for the uninhibited acid solution which increased to 27.32 kJ mol-1 in the presence of 0.1 M inhibitor concentration. The negative values of Gibb’s free energy of adsorption (ΔGads) confirmed the spontaneity of the inhibition process and adsorption of the inhibitor on the aluminium surface was found to be consistent with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Corrosion rate and other thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were calculated and discussed.

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Phenylpropanoids and flavones from Asystasia gangetica (L) T. Anderson var. micrantha (Acanthaceae)

Isna Athirah Othman, Norizan Ahmat and Sharifah Aminah Syed Mohamad

Page No. 107-110

Asystasia gangetica (L) T. Anderson var. micrantha (Acanthaceae), commonly known as ‘Chinese violet’ or ‘rumput Israel’, is a straggling herb usually found among short grasses and along pathways. This plant is used traditionally to treat diabetes mellitus, ear disease and gonorrhea, while its anthelmintic activity helps to treat swelling and rheumatism. The present study was designed to isolate and elucidate bioactive compounds from this plant. Methanolic extract of the plant leaves was fractionated by using PLC. Selected fractions were subjected to preparative HPLC and recycling HPLC for further purification.

All the compounds were monitored by using UHPLC. The structures of isolated compounds were characterized by using spectroscopic method including NMR, IR and UV data. Four constituents, namely ferulic acid, methyl caffeate, chrysoeriol and chrysoeriol-4’-glycoside were isolated. All the compounds were identified in the genus Asystasia.

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The antifungal effect of the main monoterpenes of the essential oil of Artemisia herba alba var. huguetii (Caball.) Maire of the region of Ouarzazate-Morocco when tested against strains of Candida

Amine Sanae, Kouoh Elombo Ferdinand, Eto Bruno, El hamzaoui Najia, Bouzoubaa Amal, Mahjoubi Malika and Zair Touriya

Page No. 111-117

Artemisia herba alba var. huguetii (Caball.) Maire is an endemic species of Morocco belonging to the Asteraceae family. It is found in the Moroccan Sahara. It is in demand by the people who use it for its regulating properties of the menstrual cycle and for its ability to treat some microbial and urinary infections. However, few studies have been conducted on this species. Thus, to contribute to its valuation, we have selected this species in the Ouarzazate region to test its ability to fight against candidiasis. The performance of the essential oil (EO) of A.herba alba var. huguetii (Caball.) Maire, extracted from its flowering tops by hydrodistillation is of the order of 3.97 ± 0.1%. The GC-SM analysis identified 31 components essentially as oxygenated monoterpenes.

The major compounds are β-thuyone (59.16%), followed by Camphor (18.38%) and dehydro Sabina Ketone (10.04%). On the studied yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida sp), this EO showed an inhibitory effect against all strains tested with a MIC ranging from 1.8 to 29 μg / ml. The previous works on A. herba alba var. huguetii (Caball.) Maire of Ouarzazate have revealed a multitude of important chemical compounds. In addition to its promising anticandidosic activity, it could be a valid alternative to antifungal agents in the fight against dermatosis.

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Buchwald-Hartwig amination strategy for synthesis of phenylurea-pyrimidine derivatives

Thummar Sandeep and Bhatt Vasishta

Page No. 118-126

Synthesis and characterization of some novel 1-phenyl 3-(4-((5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio)-6-(quinol one-4-yloxy) pyrimidin-2-yl)urea motifs are reported here. Starting material 2,4,6-trichloropyrimidine on sequential reaction with different moieties such as oxadiazole, quinolin-4-ol and phenyl urea gave desired derivatives with excellent yield. The synthetic steps involve various bond formations such as C-S and C-O which occurs with the help of nucleophilic substitution reaction.

The C-N bond formation was achieved through palladium catalyzed Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction. This unusual C-N bond formation in the synthetic route makes it more interesting in comparison to other bond formations.

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Ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of perazinedimaleate by diperiodatocuprate (III) in aqueous alkaline medium – A kinetic and mechanistic approach

Govindrajnaj Nayak T., Vidyadhar Havanur C. and Abdulazizkhan Harihar L.

Page No. 127-134

The RuIII catalyzed oxidation of perazinedimaleat e(PDM) drug by diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC) in aqueous alkaline medium was investigated and monitored spectrophotometrically (λmax = 415 nm) at constant ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm-3 and 301K. The reaction shows 1: 2 stoichiometry between PDM and DPC. The reaction is of first order in [DPC] and [RuIII], less than unit order in [PDM] and negative fractional order in [alkali] and [IO4-]. The periodate has retarding effect on reaction rate.

The ionic strength, dielectric constant of the medium and added products has no significant effect on the rate of the reaction; intervention of free radical was observed and RuIII increases the reaction rate. The oxidation product of PDM was identified by IR, NMR and GCMS. The active forms of catalyst ruthenium and oxidant monoperiodatocuprate(III) (MPC) were detected as [Ru(H2O)5(OH)]+2 and [Cu(OH)2(H3 IO6)]- respectively. The rate law and reaction mechanism was proposed. The equilibrium constants and rate constant were calculated. The activation parameters were deliberated for catalyzed and uncatalyzed reactions.

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Peroxide value in foods

Febrina Amelia Saputri and Andriati Khoerunnisa

Page No. 135-138

Foods that contain lipids or cooking oil can decrease quality due to the oxidation process that produces primary products peroxide which is hydroperoxide. The presence of peroxide content in food containing lipids or oils can be analyzed so that the peroxide numbers can be obtained which can be used as a determinant of oxidation status. Peroxide value is an indicator. Peroxide value can be obtained with iodometric titration, colorimetric method and chromatography method. It depends on the nature matrix in food samples.

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Ecotoxicological Bioassays: An innovative tool for wastewater pollution control

Berrebaan I., Montassir L. and Bessi H.

Page No. 139-147

In recent years, water pollution is one of the most serious problems in the world. The release of many kinds of wastewaters is the main origin. Wastewaters have negative effects on aquatic ecosystem which are demonstrated across different organisms from basic to higher trophic levels. This arises concerns to ensure a high wastewater quality control. Current wastewaters quality assessment is usually regulated by traditional physical and chemical parameters.

However, this classical approach is not able to predict the effect of contaminant mixtures present in the wastewaters. As such, synergistic, antagonist and/ or integrative effects combination affects contaminants. In addition, the analytical approach cannot address all contaminants present at trace concentrations in the wastewaters. The physicochemical analysis is not sufficient to explain the potential ecotoxicity in wastewaters. The whole effluent toxicity testing (WET) completes the shortcoming from routine screening. The goal of the WET is to expose freshwater organisms from different trophic level including primer producer (microalgae), primer and seconder consumer (invertebrates, fish) and/ or decomposers (bacteria) to toxic wastewaters. The current study highlights the benefit of using the WET approach as a supplementary tool for wastewaters control as well as the effectiveness of wastewaters treatment plant (WWTPs) efficiency.

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Microbial and plant assisted remediation of Benzo[α]pyrene from soil and aqueous environment

Mandal Sanjeeb Kumar, Das Devlina and Das Nilanjana

Page No. 148-159

Benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) is one of the most toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil-plant system causing potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity for human health. The knowledge on the behavior of BaP in soil-plant system as well as aqueous environment is needed for minimizing the risk of human exposure and environmental contamination. BaP, high molecular weight PAH with five benzene rings has been specifically classified as a primary pollutant and group 1 human carcinogen. Bioremediation is an eco-friendly and cost-effective method for reclaiming the environment contaminated with BaP by making use of the microorganisms and plants to eradicate the hazardous effects.

The present review is focused on the microbe assisted bioremediation and phytoremediation techniques for the removal of BaP from the soil and aqueous environment. The information provided here will help to plan the research in a better way to develop more sustainable system for remediation of BaP from the environment.

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