Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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The effect of Natural Plants Extracts on the Rate of Dissolution of Calcium carbonate

Dalia I. Saleh, Mahmoud S.F., Al-Nemary S. and Al-Nemary R.

Page No. 1-8

The dissolution of CaCO3 crystals in the presence and absence of extracts of dried peels of Pomegranate (PG) and Calamondin (CA) as additives at 25 ºC, I = 0.15 mol dm-3 and pH = 8.3 has been studied. The process appears to follow a surface-controlled dissolution mechanism which shows a marked reduction in the dissolution rate of CaCO3 crystals by the presence of these additives at a relatively low concentration (10-6 mol dm-3). The increase in concentration of additives may lead to blockage of the active growth sites on calcium carbonate crystal surfaces through adsorption and thus the rate of dissolution of crystals decreased. The action of these additives was also supported by reaction order (n = 2), the activation energy value (7.14 Kcal/mol) and validity of using Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm. The affinity constants (KL) in the presence of these additives were determined to be 8.6 and 7.3 dm3 mol-1 for PG and CA respectively.

These values relate to the high adsorption at the same value of relative degree of under saturation (σ = 0.09) and the inhibition order was: PG >CA. The values of ΔG supported this order of inhibition of these additives. The present findings revealed that charged units of the additive molecules adsorb onto the crystal surface of calcium carbonate via electrostatic attraction. The essential factors affecting the dissolution of CaCO3 crystals include structure, molecular geometry and hydrophilicity of the extract molecules.

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Antioxidant Activity of Syzygium cumini Fruit Peel Extract for Diabetes Mellitus Treatment in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Muttakin and Muhammad Zulfajri

Page No. 9-13

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with severe effects on human life quality. The decrease in blood glucose level is an important DM treatment. Phytochemical screening was examined to evaluate the secondary metabolite constituents in Syzygium cumini (SC) fruit peel extract. Antioxidant activity of SC fruit peel extract was investigated by using DPPH method. Ascorbic acid as a standard was used to compare the inhibition percentage of SC fruit peel extract.

The results show that the SC fruit peel extract has great antioxidant activity. The level of blood glucose of diabetic rats reduced significantly after administering with SC peel extract. This study informs that the SC peel extract exhibited high potential as an antioxidant agent. So, the SC peel extract exhibited good diabetic treatment from antioxidant activity in diabetic rats by reducing the level of blood glucose suggesting that this extract can be used as alternative traditional medicine and can be explored more and more for DM treatment.

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Analysis of Odorous Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Paperboard based Pizza Box by Dynamic Headspace-GC/MS

Sood Swati and Sharma Chhaya

Page No. 14-16

Dynamic headspace-GC/MS of locally procured pizza box sample was analyzed to identify Volatile Odorous Compounds (VOCs). During analysis, it was observed that the sample contained various VOCs like aldehydes and furans which have the potential to generate odor in the food package in which they are present.

The presence of such VOCs in food packages like pizza box is a serious concern as their presence can lead to consumer dissatisfaction with regards to quality and health point of view, tarnishing of brand images and huge monetary losses.

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Anticorrosive behaviour of pharmaceutical drug on mild steel corrosion

Chitra S. and Anand B.

Page No. 17-23

The inhibitive action of an examined environment friendly antimicrobial drug tetracycline on the corrosion of mild steel in 1M CaCl2 medium has been studied by weight loss and electrochemical techniques. The study revealed that the drug has an inhibitory action on the corrosion of mild steel in the investigated medium. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the concentration of the inhibitor. Electrochemical studies data support that examined drug is an efficient inhibitor for mild steel corrosion. The adsorption of the examined drug obeys Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. Polarization studies indicate that this inhibitor acts as a mixed type inhibition. The protective film formed on the surface was confirmed by SEM.

The results achieved show that various concentrations of antibiotic drugs inhibited the oxidation in chloride solution through the adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the superficial surface by obstructing its active sites. The results found from the FTIR are in excellent agreement. The data collected from the studied techniques are in good agreement to confirm the ability of using antimicrobial drug tetracycline as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel aqueous media.

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Photodegradation of Thiazine and Indigoid Dyes using Zinc Oxide Nanocatalyst coupled with Air Oxidation under Solar Irradiation

Preeja Thattil P., Vinotha S. and Leema Rose A.

Page No. 24-33

Zinc Oxide nanoparticles having an average Crystallite size of 5.6 nm are used as the photocatalyst for the decolourization of methylene blue, a thiazine dye and also for indigo carmine, an Indigoid dye. The combined effect of air oxidation along with zinc oxide nanoparticles enhanced the decolourization process. The operational parameters such as pH, catalyst concentration and the effect of initial dye concentration are optimized.

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Effect of Chromium Addition in Lemna sp. on Feed Conversion and Chromium Retention in Gourami (Osphronemus goramy) Flesh

Andriani Yuli, Iskandar, Herawati Titin, Zidni Irfan and Detrik Sudarsa

Page No. 34-37

Gourami, Osphronemus goramy is one of the indigenous freshwater fish species in Indonesia which has high meat quality, thus accounting for its commercial importance. This study was conducted during the period of April to September 2017 in Ciparanje Freshwater Fishery Area of the Faculty of Fishery and Marine Science of Universitas Padjadjaran as well as in the Gourami and Tilapia Stock Development and Farming Office (Balai Pengembangan dan Pemacuan Stok Ikan Gurame dan Nilem, BPPSIGN), Singaparna Tasikmalaya, Ceungceum unit. This study is aimed to analyze the effect and define the optimum percentage of chromium-loaded Lemna sp. provision to improve gourami seed growth.

This study used Randomized Experimental study consisting of five treatments i.e. A (20% Lemna sp.), B (1.65% chromium-loaded Lemna sp. + 18.35% Lemna sp.), C (3.3% chromium-loaded Lemna sp. + 16.7% Lemna sp.), D (4.95% chromium-loaded Lemna sp. + 15.05% Lemna sp.) and E (6.6% chromium-loaded Lemna sp. + 13.4% Lemna sp.). Each treatment was repeated three times. Parameters observed were feed conversion ratio and chromium content in gurami fish seed. The provision of 4.95% chromium-loaded Lemna sp. + 15.05% Lemna sp. produces the best feed conversion ratio of 2.63 with chromium content in gourami fish flesh increasing simultaneously with the percentage of chromium-loaded Lemna sp. provision to the gourami fish.

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Sapindus mukprossi Gaertn.: Rich source of antioxidants and reducing agents

Singh Reetika and Kumari Nishi

Page No. 38-46

Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. is an important medicinal and economical tree. Our aim is to evaluate the antioxidant activity from various extracts (ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous) of callus and in vitro leaf extracts. Antioxidant activity and polyphenolic compound was evaluated through different standard methods. Correlation was calculated through linear regression analysis. Methanolic extract of in vitro leaf showed maximum antioxidant activity (602.28 μg ml-1), total flavonoid content (540.11±0.89 mg g-1 of rutin equivalent) and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity (11.70 μg ml-1). But total phenolic content was found maximum (338.76±0.72 mg g-1 of gallic acid equivalent) in ethanolic extract of in vitro leaf.

Similarly, reducing potential was maximum in methanolic extract of callus. Very close and significant correlation was seen between antioxidant and polyphenolic content of in vitro leaf and callus extracts. Positive and significant correlation was also observed between antioxidant activities and reducing potential and indicates that reducers present in the extracts play an important role in antioxidant activity. As both extracts showed phytochemical activities, so they can be used for the production of natural antioxidants, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals.

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New heterocyclic derivatives based on lactose via unusual Staudinger reaction

Salih Mahdi Salman

Page No. 47-60

A series has been synthesized to produce new amphophilic structure of lactose based heterocyclic. The synthesis started with lactose that is considered cheap and biodegradable compound found in renewable sources. Treatment of lactose with sodium acetate converts it to lactose octa acetate, which is reacted with 1, 3-dichloroisopropanol through Fisher glycosylation to yield lactose dichloride analog. The later was functionalized with sodium azide to furnish lactose diazide precursor. The precursor was coupled with four fatty acid chloride (C8, C10, C12 and C14) via Staudinger reaction to yield target compounds. The chemical structures and the purity of the products were confirmed by CHN elemental analysis and NMR spectroscopy.

Physical properties of the final compounds were investigated with Polarizing microscope, Differential scanning calorimetry and Dunouy Tensiometer. The investigation showed good ability of those compounds to reduce the surface tension of the water which makes them suitable as oil in water emulsifier.

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Two stilbenes from Indonesian Cassia grandis and their antibacterial activities

Valentina Adimurti Kusumaningtyas, Yana Maolana Syah and Lia Dewi Juliawaty

Page No. 61-63

Cassia grandis is an ornamental plant that has been reported to have ethnopharmacological uses to heal wounds, scabies and other skin medications in Indonesian traditional medicine. Phytochemical investigation of the heartwood C. grandis led to the isolation of two known stilbenes: piceatannol 1 and resveratrol 2 isolated from the methanol extract. The structures were established on the basis of chemical evidence and spectroscopic methods, especially NMR as well as by comparing with published data.

The antibacterial activity was carried out by using broth microdilution method and evaluated against two pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. One of the isolated compounds 1 was reported as secondary metabolite of Indonesian C. grandis. Compound 2 exhibited promising selective antibacterial potent against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.

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Adsorption behaviour of Chromium ions on Polymer coated Alumina-Iron oxide nanocomposite

Mary Lissy P.N., Madhu G. and Thomas Roy M.

Page No. 64-72

The performance of Alumina- Iron Oxide nanocomposite as an adsorbent in the removal of Cr (VI) has been investigated. The experimental studies reveal that the removal of heavy metal from waste waters can be increased within shorter duration when the nanocomposite is coated with a suitable polymer. The adsorptive properties of prepared nanocomposite with and without polymer were evaluated for chromium ions removal using batch mode adsorption system. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite using SEM, TEM and FTIR analysis was done to check the removal efficiency before and after adsorption. The effects of initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, temperature and time were investigated for optimum adsorption on the uptake of chromium ions and 93.12% removal was observed.

Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were used to analyze the experimental data and it was found that the maximum adsorption capacity is 15.65 mg/g. The mechanism of adsorption and performance of the adsorbent was evaluated using adsorption kinetics model. An ideal experimental response design has been carried out using Box Behnken design to evaluate the effect of different parameters in the batch mode study.

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Preparation and Characterization of Penta Allyl Sucrose

Patel Zalak J., Patel Mukesh C., Chatrabhuji Parimal M., Patel Viral A. and Patel Dharmesh R.

Page No. 73-77

Allyl sucrose was prepared by condensation reaction among sucrose, allyl chloride, NaOH and DMSO which makes suspension. The employed method is new, faster, consumes less solvent and more convenient to isolate product than the existing methods. There is no need of column chromatography. The yield of synthesized product is 90%.

The prepared product is characterized by various spectral studies such as FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infrared), NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and Mass spectrometry. It is used in different industrial fields.

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The antioxidant effect of bangle (Zingiber cassumunar) rhizome extract on superoxide dismutase (sod) activity in hyperlipidemic rats

Novita Sari, Nurkhasanah and Nanik Sulistyani

Page No. 78-81

High-fat diet can cause increase in formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Bangle (Zingiber Cassumunar) rhizome is potential an antioxidant and can restore oxidative balance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of extract Z. cassumunar rhizome on superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity in rat induced by high-fat diet (HFD). Twenty-five rats were divided randomly into five groups; group I: normal control (standard-fed); groups II: hyperlipidemia (HFD+propylthiouracil (PTU) 0.05%); group III, IV and V: administered HFD+PTU 0.05% and different dose of Z. cassumunar rhizome extracts ( 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BB). The rats were fed with HFD+PTU 0.05% for 14 days and extract of Z. cassumunar treatment for 28 days simultaneously. Rats were fasted overnight and euthanized by neck dislocation.

Liver was separated for measurement of SOD activity. The statistical analysis that had been done used ANOVA with an LSD test. The intake of Rhizome Z. Cassumunar extract 400 mg/kg BW per day in rats induced HFD, significantly increased SOD activity compared to the control group and HFD group (P <0.05). Z. Cassumunar Rhizome has been shown to effectively increase antioxidant activity and minimize the adverse effects of HFD.

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Insecticidal Activity of M. spicata (L.) Essential Oil against Sitophilus Oryzae (L.)

Nadia Zekri, Abdelhamid El Caidi, Mohamed Alaoui El Belghiti and Touria Zair

Page No. 82-85

The evaluation of plants insecticidal potential has increased in last decade in order to develop botanical insecticides that can replace the synthetic pesticides or reduce their use and negative effects on the environment. Due to the importance of Mentha spicata (L.), most used in Morocco, to flavor tea and for therapeutic, industrial and pharmaceutical purposes, the objective of this work was to evaluate the fumigant effect of spearmint oil towards S. oryzae (L.) weevils. The areal parts were collected from Azrou (Middle-Atlas) and then subjected to the hydrodistillation by Clevenger apparatus. The extracted essential oil (EO) was analyzed using GC-SM. Moreover, the weevils were exposed to the spearmint oil with different doses during 14 days till the death of last insect.

So, according to the results of fumigation tests, the spearmint oil has shown an important insecticidal effect, thus the mortality depends on the applied dose and the exposure duration. This fumigant effect can be attributed to the main constituents that have proved their toxicity and their role as natural insecticides.

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Biobeneficiation of sulphide minerals from Bacillus subtilis using XRD, EDAX and FTIR techniques

Sarvamangala H., Raghavendra Vinay B. and Girisha S.T.

Page No. 86-92

The concentration of iron sulphides in complex sulphide ores can lead to adverse environmental conditions such as acid mine drainage. The use of conventional chemicals to counter this problem can be uneconomical whereas on the other hand, some petroleum-based treatment products are toxic and there is therefore a need to employ an environment friendly as well as commercially viable process. This study involves biobeneficiation of sulphide minerals using Bacillus subtilis.

The characterization of minerals (galena and pyrite) was carried out using XRD, EDAX and FTIR techniques. FTIR of minerals before and after interaction with cells, cell free extracts and extracellular proteins was carried out and it has been found that there is a shift or change in the peaks of functional groups. In the presence of protein adsorption, amide peaks were found and in the case of polysaccharide adsorption, carboxyl peaks were found which corroborate the flotation and flocculation results.

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Bacterial community composition among coral diseases in Biawak Island using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

Mochamad Untung Kurnia Agung, Ismail Maqbul, Sri Astuty and Yeni Mulyani

Page No. 93-98

The existence of disease is one of the main factors deteriorating the coral reef. Infectious disease in coral affected by bacteria has been observed and believed related to presence of pathogen in the structure of bacteria community with high diversity. Therefore, this research aims to identify the diversity of bacteria on the spot of hard coral (Scleractinia) infected by disease type of black band disease (BBD) and white syndrome (WS) in Biawak Island using molecular techniques DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). Sampling was conducted at three different stations from the depth of 3-5 meters. Metagenome DNA of bacterial community was isolated using ZR Soil Microbe DNA KitTM. Amplification of specific regions of the gene encoding the 16S rRNA was performed using the primers U968f and L1401r generating a product about 434 bp in length.

The results indicated that from 5 samples obtained, 7 operational taxonomic unit (OTU) selected were OTU 1 (identity value 98%/Acc No. EU660320/Vibrio natriegens), OTU 2 (identity value 98%/Acc No. KJ99575/Pseudomonas aeruginosa), OTU 3 (identity value 96%/Acc No. AB112008/Bacillus sp), OTU 4 (identity value 99%/Acc No. GQ487488/Vibrio harveyi), OTU 5 (identity value 97%/Acc No. FM204856/Vibrio campbellii), OTU 6 (unknown) and OTU 7 (identity value 98%/Acc No. FJ457197/Pseudoalteromonas ruthenica). The bacteria species found both on the white black band disease and white syndrome were Vibrio natriegens, Vibrio harveyi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudoalteromonas ruthenica while Vibrio campbellii, Bacillus sp. was only found on the white syndrome.

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Antibacterial activity of various medicinal plants in North Sumatra against common human pathogens

Juwitaningsih Tita, Jahro Iis Siti, Sari Sri Adelila and Rukayadi Yaya

Page No. 99-105

The necessity for new antibiotic compounds is becoming urgent, given the increasing number of bacteria that are resistant to one or several antibiotics. This study was aimed to assess the potential of 24 North Sumatra, Indonesia medicinal plants as a source of antibacterial compounds. Maceration with acetone solvents was used to extract the content from the medicinal plant samples. Then, antibacterial activity tests were conducted via in vitro on 6 pathogenic bacteria. The antibacterial screening was carried out using the M02-A11 Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (ClSI) diffusion method followed by the determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) with Microdilution Methods M07-A9 (CSSI) and determination of Minimum Bactericide Concentration (MBC). Phytochemical tests were carried out on extracts which showed high activity.

The results confirmed that most of the samples showed antibacterial activity against 4 to 5 of test bacteria. Strong antimicrobial activity was shown by Phyllantus urinaria L extract against S. saprophyticus and Cassia angustifolia plant extracts against B. cereus and S. saprophyticus bacteria, each with a concentration of 312.5 ug/mL. The C. angustifolia is bacteriostatic, whereas P. urinaria L is bactericidal with an MBC value of 1250 ug/mL. Furthermore, P.urinaria contains alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids, saponins and tannins and so does C. Angustifolia.

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Characterization of Corncob and Areca nut stem-based Wood Vinegar as Potential Fungicides

Mahiuddin Md., Tonu Nusrat Tazeen, Zaman Md. Rafsun, Mondal Chhoa and Rabbi M. Ahasanur

Page No. 106-110

Pyrolysis process has been used recently to produce wood vinegar from various agro-residues with intent to investigate their chemical composition and potential uses. In the present study two agro wastes corncob of Zea mays and stem of Areca catechu (Areca nut) are utilized to produce wood vinegar through pyrolysis process. Characterization of these corncob and Areca nut stem-based wood vinegar was investigated via Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). Twenty-five compounds were identified from each wood vinegar sample.

Along with some carbonyl compounds and hydrocarbons, most of the compounds are phenolic in nature. Antifungal activities of the both wood vinegar samples against four fungal phytopathogens were investigated. Significant activities were observed against Colletotrichum musae and Bipolaris sorokiniana.

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Phenolic compounds from the leaves of Antidesma venosum

Rini Muharini, Zhen Liu, Wenhan Lin and Peter Proksch

Page No. 111-116

Phytochemical investigation on the leaves of Antidesma venosum, a medicinal plant native to South Africa, has led to the isolation of four phenolic compounds namely amentoflavone (1), isobioquercetine (2), vitexin (3) and caffeoylglycolic acid (4), together with antidesmone (5), a chemotaxonomy marker of this genus. Their chemical structures were established by spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR, UV and ESIMS as well as by comparison with the literature data. All fractions were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxicity activities.

Unfortunately, most of the fractions were inactive except for fractions AvH80, AvH60 and AvH40 which were slightly active as antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The isolated compounds, other than antidesmone, were reported from the leaves of A. venosum for the first time.

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In vitro evaluation of anti-urolithiatic properties of Strobilanthes crispus extracted using different solvents

Muhammad Tayyab Gul, Ali Sami Dheyab, Ekremah Kheun Shaker, Norhayati Muhammad and Aslia Natasha Pauzi

Page No. 117-121

Traditionally, Strobilanthes crispus is well-known for the treatment of renal diseases. The aim of the present study was to validate the traditional uses of S. crispus by evaluating its anti-urolithiatic activities in vitro. The inhibitory activity against calcium oxalate (CaOx) via aggregation assay and dissolution using titrimetric method were evaluated. The effects of S. crispus and cystone on slope of nucleation and aggregation as well as CaOx crystal growth were evaluated spectrophotometrically. S. crispus was extracted using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water.

Methanol (5.92 %) yielded the highest percentage of extract and also showed the highest inhibitory activity against aggregation of CaOx crystals (50.54 ± 2.11 %). Ethyl acetate extract had the most effective dissolution effect on CaOx crystals (52.50 ± 2.50 %). S. crispus significantly (p< 0.05) inhibited the slope of nucleation and aggregation of CaOx crystal and reduced crystal density. The present study validated the traditional uses of S. crispus, which was found to show significant anti-urolithiatic activities. However, further studies are recommended for the isolation and identification of active constituents and their in-vivo analysis.

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Flavonol and two phenolic compounds from the leaves of Macaranga hosei King ex Hook.f.

Mohamad Hamizan Mohd Isa, Norizan Ahmat and Aisyah Salihah Kamarozaman

Page No. 122-125

The genus of Macaranga from Euphorbiaceae family encompasses of approximately 308 species that are endemic to the tropics of Asia, Australia, Africa and Pacific contingents1. Some Macaranga species have emerged as a good source of ethnomedicine by aboriginal folks. Traditional practitioners use fresh or dried leaves of certain Macaranga species as anti-inflammatory medicines2. Nevertheless, most flavonoids from Macaranga species are generally isoprenylated, farnesylated, geranylated, or geranyl geranylated. The leaves of Macaranga hosei were collected from reserved forest Lenggong, Perak, Malaysia and the dried and powdered leaves were macerated in methanol at room temperature.

Then, the crude methanolic extract was fractionated by using vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) to give seven (7) major fractions (MH1-MH7). Fraction MH3 was further purified by series of column chromatography (CC) and a flavonol, namely ombuin (1) was purified by using recrystallization method. Vanillic acid (2) and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester (3) were isolated by using semi-preparative HPLC. The chemical structures of these isolated compounds were characterized based on their 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR and MS spectral data. Phytochemical study on the methanolic extract of the leaves of M. hosei has yielded three compounds known as ombuin, vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid ethyl ester.

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Prenylated flavonoid isolated from Macaranga mappa

Akhmad Darmawan, Sofa Fajriah, Megawati, Puspa Dewi N. Lotulung and Rizna Triana Dewi

Page No. 126-129

Glyasperin A (1), a dihydroflavonol derivative had been isolated from the methanol extract of Macaranga mappa leaves. The structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data including IR, LC-ESI-MS and NMR spectra. Cytotoxicity evaluation of compound 1 against three different cancer cell lines P-388, T47D and MCF-7 showed potential activity as anticancer compounds with IC50 values 1.67, 144.95 and 36.83 g/mL respectively.

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Recent Advances in the Oxidation Reactions of Organic Compounds using Chromium (VI) Reagents

Katre Sangita D.

Page No. 130-151

Chromium(VI) complexes are among the most interesting transition metal complexes that have attracted great attention over the past decades. Due to their appealing catalytic and oxidizing properties, they have been widely explored since the very beginning of organic chemistry. The topic remains of current interest as exemplified by the huge number of reactions involving the use of chromium (VI) reagents. Moreover, a plethora of chromium reagents and procedures have been proposed and described extensively.

The main objective of the present study is to briefly summarize and explore the available literature on oxidation of different organic substrates by Chromium (VI) reagents and encourage its various contributions to the important and exciting field of synthetic organic chemistry.

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