Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Performance assessment of roadside PM10 forecasting models

Ghosh Nabanita, Roy Abhisek, Mandal Raktim and Dutta Amit

Page No. 1-11

In India, vehicles exhaust emissions are the most expeditiously growing source of air pollution as transportation demand is increasing day by day. In this study, under heterogeneous traffic flow, weekday non-weekday variation of PM10 concentration was measured near an urban roadway in Kolkata, India between August 2017 and March 2018. High level of PM10 concentration was observed during peak hour traffic flow of the weekdays. More than 78% of the cases the 8h average PM10 concentration contravened the NAAQS (100 μg/m3) limit. Simple line-source Gaussian plume dispersion model, CALINE4 and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were selected to forecast the roadside PM10 concentration and spatiotemporal variation contour was developed by QGIS. From the results, it was observed that the ANN model showed very satisfactory performances in all the simulations rather than the source-oriented dispersion model, CALINE4.

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Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of Mg (II) and Hg (II) complexes of chemotherapeutic importance derived from bidentate ligands

Ghosh Suparna, Sharma Ruchi Dubey, Anita K. and Sharma Shweta

Page No. 12-18

Metal complexes of Mg(II) and Hg(II) Schiff bases derived from 5-acetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulphonamide (Acetazolamide) and 4-chloro-5-sulfamoyl-2’,6’-salicyloxylidide (Xipamide) with Salicylaldehyde have been prepared and characterized on the basis of their physical characteristics, micro-analytical data, particle size analysis, IR, TGA and 1H NMR data.

The spectral data confirmed coordination of Schiff base with metal through imine nitrogen and oxygen atom. It also confirms the bidentate nature of ligands. The conductivity data of the complexes suggests their non-electrolytic nature. Biological screening effect of Schiff base ligands and their complexes have been studied against gram positive and gram negative bacteria by using disc diffusion method.

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Green approach for estimation of iodine value in olive oil

Nour el Houda Imane sebaa, Wafa Terouzi, Saidat Boubakeur and Abdelkhalek Oussama

Page No. 19-26

This work proposes a new and environment friendly method for the quantitative analysis of iodine value (Iv) in olive oil. By applying Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform mid-infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTMIR) associated with chemometric techniques of Principle Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLS). Spectral data were first analyzed by Principal Component Analysis. Then, PCR and PLSR were used to establish calibration models. Either PCR or PLSR model revealed the best calibration models for predicting the content of Iv in olive oil samples with coefficient of determination (R2) ˃ 0.9. Finally, another predictive model with multiple linear regression (MLR) was built up by chosen wavenumbers. It was six FTMIR wavenumbers 726.068; 1160. 94; 1457. 94; 1740. 44; 2942. 84 and 3471. 24cm-1.

Excellent correlation between chosen wavenumbers and Iv was obtained (R2v = 0.967). The value obtained for root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 2.28. The method developed was very suitable for the determination of Iv in olive oil. It is a green chemical technique furnishing a reliable, non-polluting and rapid quantification tool that does not require chemical analysis for determining Iv in olive oil.

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Physico-chemical and microbial assessment of Industrial dye effluent collected from Naroda G.I.D.C, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Modi Shreya and Fulekar M.H.

Page No. 27-33

The industries are playing an utmost important role for the economy of the country. But, hasty and unplanned clustered growth of industries leads to adverse environmental consequences in an alarming way. Reduction of pollutants in the industrial effluent down to permissible concentration is necessary for the protection of surface water bodies, ground water and environment. The aim of the present research work was to determine the behavior of various physico-chemical and microbial parameters of the dye stuff industrial waste effluent collected from the different five industries located in Naroda GIDC, Ahmedabad. These parameters includes pH, temperature, color, TS, TSS, TDS, alkalinity, free carbon dioxide, chloride, hardness, BOD, COD, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, sulfide, phosphate, calcium, zinc, nickel, strontium and chromium ions.

Microbial assessment was also done using standard methods. The effluent contained a large number of bacteria and fungi. Isolated microorganisms have been linked with varieties of diseases in living organisms. The study has shown that almost all the parameters are above the permissible level than the prescribed limit and hence now it has become a pre-requisite to set up effluent treatment plant (ETP) particularly at dyeing industries that they are discharging huge amount of liquid waste to the surrounding water bodies every day.

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Synthesis and Hypoglycemic Activity of Glimepiride Cu (II) Complex

Otuokere Ifeanyi Edozie and Amadi Kingsley Chijioke

Page No. 34-39

Glimepiride (GMP) is a third generation sulfonylurea drug used for the management of type 2 diabetes which lowers blood sugar level by stimulating the release of insulinthroughpancreatic beta cells and by inducing increased activity of intracellular insulin receptors. Cu(II) complex of glimepiride [Cu(GMP)2] was synthesized by reaction of glimepiride with copper (II) chloride salt. [Cu(GMP)2] complex was characterized based on elemental analysis, UV, IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The elemental analysis resultwas in agreement with the calculated values. The electronic spectrum of the ligand showed intra ligand charge transfer (ILCT) which was assigned to the chromophores present in the ligand. The electronic spectrum of the [Cu(GMP)2] suggested intra ligand charge transfer (ILCT), ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) and d-d transition. IR spectrum of [Cu(GMP)2] complex showed the involvement of two carbonyl and one amino group in coordination to the metal. This showed that in [Cu(GMP)2] complex, glimepiride acted as a tridentate ligand. 13CNMR spectra of the [Cu(GMP)2] complex showed the involvement of the pyrrole ring in coordination to the metal ions. The structure of the copper complex was assigned as octahedral in which the ligand molecules lie horizontally joining the central meta latom. The metal complex showed remarkable hypoglycemic activity as compared with the parent drug ligand in alloxan induced albino rat. After 8 hours of experimental time, [Cu(GMP)2] complex showed significant reduction in blood sugar level more than glimepiride. The copper complex lowered blood glucose for more duration of time even after 21 days of experimental time than glimepiride drug.

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In Silico and ADMET evaluation of bioactive drug compounds of Turbinaria ornata against fungal enzyme Candidapepsin (Secreted Aspartic Protease)

Abhishek Biswal R. and Vivek Pazhamalai

Page No. 40-50

The molecular docking analysis of bioactive compounds of Turbinaria ornata against the fungal disease candida pepsin was done. This study mainly reveals the inhibition potential of each drug molecule against targeted enzyme by interacting with the amino acids. The targeted enzymes were studies and retrieved from PDB by removing heteroatoms and water molecules. The organic bioactive compounds were screened by using Lipinski rule of five and ADMET properties for knowing drug likeliness. The molecular docking analysis was done against virulent protein by using Autodock software 4.2.6. The visualization of docked confirmation was visualized by using Discovery studio 3.1. The organic bioactive compound namely Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Tetramethrin-1 and Kresoxim Methyl have better inhibition potential with binding energy -6.44 Kcal/mol, -5.91 Kcal/mol and -5.51 Kcal/mol respectively. This study mainly focuses on computational perspectives of structure based protein ligand docking for the development of novel drug therapy.

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Integrated Treatment of Dye Wastewater discharged by Textile Industries

Ravichandran S., Prabhakaran N., Ramabadran S. and Kumar Ashish

Page No. 51-56

Treatment of dye wastewater discharged from textile industries became more important because of huge release of wastewater from them. Though many methods are available to treat this type of wastewater, many of them has some disadvantages. The present work provides sludge free technique to treat this type of wastewater. The integrated treatment such as HFO, HETFO, FACCO and FICCO are used to remove colour completely. The removal of colour was confirmed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and FT-IR with Fluorescence spectrum.

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Surfactant Effect on Acido-Basic Equilibria of Glycylglycine and Histamine in Neutral Micellar Media

Seetharam P., Ramanaiah M., Sathishmohan B. and Sailaja B.B.V.

Page No. 57-62

Protonation equilibria of glycylglycine and histamine have been studied potentiometrically in various composition (0.0, 0.5, 1.0. 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% v/v) of Triton X-100 (TX100). The study has been carried out at 303 K temperature maintaining 0.16 mol dm-3 ionic strength using NaCl. The protonation constants have been calculated using computer program MINIQUAD75.

The best fit of model has been preferred on basis of statistical parameters like skewness, χ2, Kurtosis and crystallographic R-factor. The change in stability of step-wise protonation constants with composition of the surfactant has been illustrated on the basis of electrostatic grounds. Distribution of chemical species with respect to pH and various compositions medium is also studied.

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Potentiometric Studies of Complex Equlibria of CaII, MgII and ZnII with 5-Sulphosalicylic Acid in Non-Ionic Micelles of TX100

Ramanaiah M., Gouthamsri S. and Rama Raju B.

Page No. 63-69

Formation of metal ligand complex species of 5-sulphosalicylic acid with CaII, MgII and ZnII metal ions has been studied potentiometrically in various composition (0.0, 0.5, 1.0. 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% v/v) tritonX-100 (TX100). The study has been carried out at 303 K temperature and maintaining 0.16 mol dm-3 ionic strength using NaCl. The dynamic species belonging to 5-sulphosalicylic acid are LH2- and LH2-. The best fit of complex speciation has been preferred on basis of statistical parameters like skewness, χ2, Kurtosis and crystallographic R-factor.

ML2H, ML2H2 and ML3H3 type complex were formed by the complexation of 5-sulphosalicylic acid with the metal ions. The change in stability of complex species with composition of the surfactant has been illustrated on the basis of electrostatic grounds. Distribution of chemical species with respect to pH and various compositions medium and probable complex equilibria are also studied.

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Fenton oxidation process for the treatment of artificial binary dye mixture in aqueous solution

Rajoriya Sunil, Ghildiyal Anjali, Gupta Garvita, Chauhan Bhawana, Tyagi Girish, Pundir Avdesh Singh and Jain Ajay Kumar

Page No. 70-80

The degradation of artificial binary dye mixture containing Rhodamine B (RhB) and Methyl orange (MO) dye was investigated using Fenton oxidation process (FOP) in a batch system. The influences of different parameters viz. Fe2+ dosage (25 – 200 mg/L), concentration of H2O2 (25 – 150 mg/L), solution pH (3.0 – 9.0), initial binary dye concentration (40 – 100 mg/L) and stirring speed (100 – 200 rpm) on the decolorization of binary dye were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions were found to be pH (3.0), hydrogen peroxide concentration (50 mg/L), stirring speed (150 rpm) and Fe2+ concentration (150 mg/L) for the initial binary dye concentration of 40 mg/L at 25°C. Under optimized conditions, 83.56% decolorization of binary dye was achieved in 60 min.

The effect of oxidizing agent (Sodium persulfate, Na2S2O8) on the decolorization of binary dye was also studied in order to enhance the decolorization efficiency of FOP. Almost 99% decolorization was observed using Na2S2O8 (1 g/L) in the FOP at optimized parameters. Effect of radical scavenger i.e. sodium bicarbonate (1 g/L) on the decolorization was also investigated and decolorization using FOP was dominated by attack of hydroxyl (•OH) radicals. To quantify the extent of mineralization, chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis was also performed under optimal conditions and 39.72% COD was removed.

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Plant Species identification by utilization of Width Plot Analysis Feature Extraction Technique

Sadgir Prajakta and Ratnaparkhe Varsha

Page No. 81-85

Every flora and fauna in the ecosystem has its peculiar role. In order to preserve ecosystem, conservation of the every species is of paramount importance. Identification of species aids the conservation and plays a vital role in preservation of enviornment. This work proposes method for precise plant identification with limited domain knowledge. Plants: Aegle Marmelos L. (bel), Aloe Vera, Ricinus Communis Linn. (castor), Ocimum Tenuiflorum (tulasi), Azadirachta Indica (neem), Datura Stramonium (Datura), Calotropis Gigantea (rui), Vitex Negundo (nirgundi) with applications as analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties were selected for the study.

Hue discrimination algorithm is utilized for primary classification of trees based on maturity. A novel technique “Width Plot Analysis” is used for feature extraction which achieves 94% accuracy. Tree classifier implemented gives improved accuracy with reduced operating time.

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Synthesis and structural analysis of zirconium nanoparticles using p- amino benzoic acid- formaldehyde resin

Chaudhary Jyoti and Sharma Monika

Page No. 86-89

In the present work, zirconium nanoparticles are synthesised by using p- amino benzoic acid and formaldehyde by chemical precipitation method. To obtain Zr (II) nanoparticles, the polymer metal complex is decomposed at 800°C by thermal decomposition method. The formation of polymer metal complex of Zr(II) is confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR).

The crystallographic structure of nanoparticles is confirmed by X- ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The XRD analysis reveals the size of Zr (II) nanoparticles as 15.84 nm and crystal structure of nanoparticles is orthorhombic.

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Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies of some of phenyl mercury(II) complexes of 1,3-benzothiazole-2-thione and phosphine or amines

Al-Janabi Ahmed S.M. and Al-Nassiry Amenah Ibrahim

Page No. 90-97

New series of phenyl mercury (II) complexes containing mixed ligands of 1,3-benzothiazole-2-thione (bztSH) and phosphine or amines as co-ligands were prepared. Treatment of bztSH with phenyl mercury (II) acetate in equivalent molar ratio afforded monounclear [PhHg(1-bztS)] (1). The complex (1) was reacted with one mole of (diphos=Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2 (n = 2-4)) to give complexes of the types [PhHg(1-bztS)(diphos)](2-4), whereas the reaction with two moles of PPh3 affords mononuclear complex [PhHg(1-bztS)(PPh3)2](5) while the reaction of complex (1) with diamine (Bipy, Phen and en) or amine (Py and Pyrazole) affords complexes of the types [PhHg(1-bzt S)(diamine)](6-8) or [PhHg(1-bztS)(amine)2](9 - 10) respectively.

The prepared complexes were fully characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 31P). The prepared complexes were screened for their bactericidal activities against positive and negative gram bacteria. The antibacterial activities of the metal complexes were higher than their free ligands and metal salts from which they were derived.

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Carbon derived from sewage sludge: Characterization and application in greywater treatment

Shafiquzzaman Md.

Page No. 98-106

In this study, carbons were produced from sewage sludge as an adsorbent of organics from domestic greywater. Four sewage-derived carbons C-500, C-600, C-700 and C-800, were prepared simply by pyrolysis of sludge at 500-8000C without further chemical activation. The physical and chemical characteristics of the produced carbons were examined through Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, ash content, carbon yield, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller highest surface areas were obtained for C-600 carbons which is 207 m2/g and comparable with other non-activated carbons produced from sewage sludge. Energy dispersive spectra showed that all carbons constituted heterogeneous basic elements with higher carbon (35.49%) content in C-600. The SEM images of all carbon samples showed that C-600 and C-700 have better porosity with almost no spacing between them. C-600 carbon was used to investigate the total organic carbon removal from domestic greywater by batch kinetics, batch isotherms and pH study.

The higher adsorption of TOC was obtained at pH 6.0 - 7.0 due to an increase in positively charged active surface of carbon. Pseudo second-order kinetics model and Langmuir isotherm model were found to be suitable to express the total organic carbon adsorption data. The total organic carbon adsorption on C-600 surface was monolayer, homogeneous and chemisorptions rate-controlling. The study results showed that the sewage sludge has great potential to produce effective carbon by simple pyrolysis method and would be a sustainable alternative of sludge management practices.

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Synthesis and Ion exchange Characterization of n-Butyl acetate based Tin(IV) phosphate: A New Intercalated Hybrid Ion exchange material

Somya Amita and Upadhyaya Vibha

Page No. 107-111

A new intercalated hybrid ion exchanger named n-Butyl acetate based tin (IV) phosphate (nBA-SnP) has been synthesized. It has been characterized by some ion exchange studies such as ion exchange capacity, concentration and elution behavior, recycling studies, thermal stability, elemental analysis along with some physico-chemical characterization studies such as FTIR analysis, Scanning electron micrograph (SEM), Elemental and X-ray diffraction studies.

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Assessment of hydrochemistry dynamics of Dal Lake, NW Himalaya

Rather Ishtiyaq Ahmad and Dar Abdul Qayoom

Page No. 112-119

This study was undertaken to evaluate the rate of change of different physio-chemical parameters of the Dal Lake. Physio-chemical analysis (pH, DO, COD, NO3-N and TP) was carried for the hydrological year 2017. The results were compared with earlier findings of 1997 and 2007 to determine their decadal change. The results show that COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), NO3-N and TP (Total Phosphorus) concentration have increased at rapid rate while the concentration of DO (Dissolved oxygen) has decreased leading to anthropogenic inputs.

Comparative results indicate that NO3- N (>2 times), TP (>1.75 times) and COD (>1.3times) have increased from 1997 to 2017. COD has increased in the lake particularly in Nigeen basin while Nishat basin has remained slightly unaffected from all types of anthropogenic pressures. This study reflects that Dal Lake is undergoing through hyper-eutrophication due to increase in anthropogenic activities in catchment area. The health of Dal Lake has reached to an alarming stage and if proper remedial measures are not taken, quality of lake water will worsen further and will reach to a hyper-eutrophic condition.

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Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of stability constants of Cu(II) metal complexes with ligands 2-(3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-4H-chromen-4-one derivatives

G.S. Parvati, Patil Nirdosh S., Patil Shweta M. and Bidve Anilkumar G.

Page No. 120-125

Complexes of copper (II) with 2-(3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-4H-chrom en-4-one (HL1) and 6-chloro-2-(3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxy phenyl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-4H chromen-4-one (HL2) have been prepared. All the complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, conductance measurement, magnetic moment, infrared, NMR, ESR and electronic spectral studies. The complexes were found to have stoichiometry (1:2) ML. On the basis of spectral and magnetic studies, octahedral geometry has been assigned for these complexes.

The acid dissociation constants (PKa values) of the investigated ligands and stability constants of Cu(II) complexes with investigated ligands were determined pH metrically at 0.1 M ionic strength and at different temperatures in alcohol. The values of stability constants were found to decrease with increasing temperature and polarity of the solvents. The thermodynamic parameters such as Gibb’s free energy change (ΔG), entropy change (ΔS) and enthalpy change (ΔH) associated with the complexation reactions were calculated. The formation of metal complexes was found to be spontaneous and exothermic in nature.

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Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, DNA interactions, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Titanium (II) indole complexes

Thakur Archana and Kaushal Raj

Page No. 126-145

Indoles and their metal derivatives are biologically important compounds commonly used as antimicrobial, antiviral, antitubercular, anti-inflammatory, anticancer agents etc. In the present study, titanium (II) complexes of chemical composition TiCl2(LI-V)2 were synthesized by reacting titanium tetrachloride with selected indole in 1:2 molar ratio in ethanol under stirring and refluxing [where LI = Tryptophol, LII = 5-Methoxyindole, LIII =Indole-5-Carboxaldehyde, LIV = 5-Cyanoidole and LV = 6-Nitroindole]. Synthesized complexes (1-5) were characterised by various physico analytical techniques viz. elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-visible and 1H NMR.

Further, metal complexes interactions with DNA were carried out using UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis technique along with antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. It has been observed that titanium indole complexes bind to ct-DNA through electrostatic/groove binding. DPPH assay result showed complexes (1 and 5) as better antioxidants. Also, all synthesized complexes had shown tendency to cleave supercoiled DNA plasmid during agarose gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobial studies revealed that all synthesized complexes were inactive against all six bacterial strains while only complex 2 and 3 were more active antifungal agents than their respective ligands.

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Preparation and characterization of layer-by-layer hybrid material of nano tungsten oxide and reduced graphitic oxide by jet nebulized spray pyrolysis technique for supercapacitor applications

Dhilip P., Niththiyanandam M., Sathishkumar C. and Mahalingam P.

Page No. 146-153

A strategy for the preparation of layer-by-layer hybrid material of nano tungsten oxide and reduced graphitic oxide by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis method and characterization of the material for supercapacitor applications is reported. Ammonium tungstate thin films were deposited on glass substrate using jet nebulized spray pyrolysis technique. Graphitic oxide is deposited as a second layer over the ammonium tungstate thin film by spray deposition. Over the graphitic oxide layer, thin film of ammonium tungstate was coated by jet nebulized spray deposition method. The layered materials are annealed in nitrogen atmosphere at the optimized condition 450°C for 2 hours.

The morphological, optical and electrochemical properties of the prepared materials were characterized using XRD, SEM, PL, CV and EIS techniques. The XRD results show that the tungsten oxide crystallizes in tetragonal structure with polycrystalline of grain size 40-60nm. Optical study shows 2.5eV as band gap energy of the materials. CV and EIS data represent hybrid nature of the materials with specific capacitance 283F/g at 5mVs-1 and ESR value 8.80Ω. Result shows layer-by-layer hybrid material of tungsten oxide and reduced graphitic oxide prepared using jet nebulized spray pyrolysis technique suitable for supercapacitor electrodes.

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The effect of different solvents on dolichodial extracted from Dolichoderus thoracicus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Shabanun Salwa Mohd Yusof, Zaini Assim and Fasihuddin Badrudin Ahmad

Page No. 154-158

Ants secrete chemical as a way of communication in territorial marker, defence, alarm signal and sex pheromone. It is believed that the dolichodial in defensive secretes of D. thoracicus is highly potential as natural repellent and insecticides. In this study, four solvents were used to extract dolichodial with different proportion; n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Ethyl acetate was found to be the optimal extraction solvent for dolichodial with composition of 70.85±0.53% and total yield extract of 41.39±2.13% (wt./wt.) followed by mixture solvents of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) and dichloromethane. No dolichodial was detected in n-hexane 100% extract. One-way ANOVA analysis indicates that there was a statistically significant difference in composition of dolichodial and total yield from different extracts (p<0.05).

Additionally, linear regression analysis proved that total yield extract increased with the polarity of the three solvents as R²= 0.965. The results showed that the tested solvents played an important role in extraction and affected the product yield and composition of the extracts. It is concluded that ethyl acetate solvent was more effective than n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol for dolichodial extraction from D. thoracicus.

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Differential Pulse Adsorptive Chatodic Stripping Voltammetry Determination of Several Heavy Metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn) in River Water with 1,2-dihidroxyanthraquinone

Pardi Hilfi, Deswati, Suyani Hamzar and Edelwis Tri Widya

Page No. 159-166

Optimization of one factor of differential pulse adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry with 1,2-dihidroxyanthraquinone (DPAdCSV-dHA) for the simultaneous determination of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn) was performed. The optimum conditions obtained from the experiment were: an acetate buffer (supporting electrolyte), pH 6, dHA concentration of 0.0006 mol L-1, accumulation period (tads) of 70 s, potential for adsorptive deposition (Eads) of -150 mV, scan rate of 800 mV s-1 and size 8 mercury droplets at the indicator electrode. .

The coefficients of variation achieved for heavy metals were 0.19, 0.89, 0.36 and 0.87% respectively for 10 repetitions; the detection limit obtained for heavy metals were 0.0049, 0.0096, 0.0049 and 0.0016 ng mL-1 respectively, The recovery results of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn using DPAdCSV-dHA were 98.67, 103.88, 96.76 and 99.78% respectively. The validity of DPAdCSV-dHA method analysis is obtained by comparing the sample river water test using AAS method.

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Cu2S-CdS Heterojunctions for Solar Cell Applications

Kumar Kapil, Kumar Vijay and Singh Sham

Page No. 167-179

Nowadays, heterojunction nanostructures are of fundamental importance because of their applications in various fields of science and technology. In this review, we describe the synthesis technique and design of Cu2S-CdS heterojunctions from thin films to one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure and their potential applications for improved solar cell efficiency ().

The  reported so far is 10.1% and 5.4% using Cu2S-CdS thin-film based heterojunctions and one-dimensional nanostructure-based heterojunctions respectively. This study also describes the effect of doping, Cu diffusion in CdS layer on photovoltaic properties and efficiency of the Cu2S-CdS heterojunction solar cell.

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