Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

Indexed in SCOPUS, Chemical Abstracts Services, UGC, NAAS and Indian Citation Index etc.

Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

Synthesis and spectroscopic characterizations of two newly copper (II) and zinc (II) ternary mixed amino acid complexes: DNA binding, antimicrobial and cytotoxicity studies

Al-Saif Foziah A., Alibrahim Khuloud A. and Ismail Eman H.

Page No. 1-13

Novel mixed bioligands metal complexes of creatine (L1) and L-arginine (L2) amino acids were prepared with Cu(II) and Zn(II), which were characterized using atomic absorption, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR, magnetic susceptibility, mass spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. The structural control for these complexes has been achieved using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the capping agent. The nanosize complexes were confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

In addition, the pure nanosize metal oxides were prepared from their prepared nano ternary complexes by thermal decomposition method and were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Binding of DNA with the prepared ternary transition metal complexes was investigated. The biological activities for these metal complexes against bacteria and four fungi were studied. The tumor inhibitory activity against three human cancer cell lines (hepatocellular carcinoma (HePG-2), colon carcinoma (HCT-116) and breast carcinoma (MCF-7)) was determined.

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TiO2 nanoparticle catalyzed multicomponent reaction for efficient synthesis of 4-(1-aryl-2-nitroethyl)-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ols in aqueous medium

Parimi Usharani and Madhavi N.

Page No. 14-18

An efficient and mild method has been developed for the preparation of 4-(1-aryl-2-nitroethyl)-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ol using TiO2 nanoparticle as a heterogeneous catalyst. This protocol affords simple and convenient procedure to synthesize a series of 4-(1-aryl-2-nitroethyl)-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ols. The protocol is suitable for aryl and heteroaryl systems and convenient for the synthesis of pyrazole derivatives.

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Treatment of CETP effluent by Green Oxidant (Ferrate) Fe (VI): An alternative primary treatment

Patel H., Vaghasiya D., Vachhani M., Upadhyay C., Patel S. and Dave H.

Page No. 19-27

In this study, application of green oxidant ferrate for primary treatment of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CEPT) effluent is explored. Ferrate is a supercharged iron molecule in which iron is in the plus six oxidation state and is also commonly known as Fe (VI). It is one of the subjects undergoing intense research by the scientists due to its potential to replace alum, polyelectrolyte and ferric chloride for removal of metals, non-metals, organic components, colour, odour and natural organic materials (NOM) from water/wastewater. In a single application, ferrate can work as an oxidant, coagulant, and disinfectant.

In this study, we have synthesized sodium ferrate (Na2FeO4) by wet oxidation method and explored it for the treatment of CETP effluent and treatment efficiency is calculated. The effluent was also given primary treatment with conventional coagulant alum for comparison. The synthesized sodium ferrate at optimum dose of 0.375mg/l provided 19.14% reduction in chemical oxygen demand whereas alum at optimum dose of 160mg/l provided only 5.31% reduction in chemical oxygen demand of the CETP effluent. The obtained results clearly indicate pre-eminence of the ferrate in comparison to conventional treatment with alum and its potential to be used as alternative in primary treatment of CETP effluent.

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Chitosan supported cobalt (II) complex as an efficient and reusable catalyst for one-pot oxyfuctionalization of olefin via epoxide opening

Panneerselvam Rajeswari, Rajendran Nagarajan and Lourdusamy Emmanuvel

Page No. 28-33

A novel one-pot procedure for the preparation of 1, 2-alkoxy alcohols and 1, 2 diols from olefin via chitosan supported cobalt (II) complex catalyzed ring opening of in situ generated epoxides has been described. The metal catalyst was found to be stable under the reaction condition and can be recycled without any appreciable loss of activity.

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Optimization and commercial production of biosurfactant from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 using renewable resources

Deivakumari M., Sanjivkumar M. and Immanuel G.

Page No. 34-49

Microbial based rhamnolipid biosurfactants are potentially used in many commercial industries viz. petroleum, pharmaceuticals, biomedical and food processing. In this study, the biosurfactant producing bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was isolated from oil contaminated areas in the fishing harbor of Chinnamuttom, Southeast coast of Tamilnadu, S. India. Biosurfactant production from the isolated strain was carried out using Bushnell Hass broth with 2% glucose as carbon source. The produced biosurfactant was confirmed as rhamnolipid by blue agar plate assay and it was quantified by means of Orcinol assay. The rhamnolipid production from the candidate strain was enhanced by using various parameters like pH, temperature, incubation time, inoculum size, carbon, nitrogen and hydrocarbon sources and NaCl concentrations.

The result revealed that the strain displayed maximum biosurfactant production at the optimized medium condition of pH 7, temperature 30°C, incubation time of 168 h with the inoculum size of 4%. The production medium substituted with 4% mannitol as carbon source, 1.5% beef extract as nitrogen source, 4% olive oil as hydrocarbon source and 1.5 % NaCl concentration recorded higher rhamnolipid production. Further the rhamnolipid production was also enhanced by using various inexpensive renewable substrates and the result revealed that the strain exhibited (6.04g/l) maximum biosurfactant production in the medium supplemented with peanut oil cake as the substrate. For maximum biosurfactant recovery, seven different extraction methods were carried out and the result revealed that the maximum (6.84 g/l) amount of biosurfactant was recovered by acid precipitation and solvent extraction method.

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Highly fluorescent azine stain for the detection of ferric ions in Mucorales

Dhanya Sunil, Aiswarya Paul, Shrilaxmi M.S., Syed Ibrahim G.P., Peralam Yegneswaran Prakash and Ciraj Ali Mohammed

Page No. 50-56

Essential metals for life such as iron, zinc, copper, nickel and manganese play a pivotal role in the conflict between infecting microbes and their hosts. Mucormycosis is a potentially life threatening systemic fungal infection caused by members that belong to the order Mucorales which primarily affects immunosuppressed patients. Rapid diagnosis and subsequent initiation of therapy is imperative due to the fulminant nature of the infection. Clinical evidences indicate the ability of these mucoralean organisms to obtain iron from the host as a major virulence attribute.

This study is an attempt to develop a novel iron dependent staining technique for the detection of filamentous Mucorales treated with ferric ion. Fluorescence sensors are one of the most powerful tools for detecting metal ions in biological systems. This study reports the fluorescent behavior of a metal-binding indicator 4,4'-[hydrazinediylidene dimethanylylidene]di(benzene-1,3-diol) (CS2) with specific optical responses on exposure to Fe3+ ions at two studied pH. Interestingly, the azine chemosensor CS2, displayed fluorescence quenching in presence of Fe3+ at pH 5.5, whereas retained its fluorescence specifically in Fe3+ solution at pH 7.4. The preliminary results indicate that pH sensitive CS2 can be a component of choice in the fluorescent stain for fungi like Mucorales in the research and diagnostic purposes.

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Antibacterial activity of various extracts from Vincetoxicum nigrum on pathogenic ‎bacteria

Sepideh Nourian, Parastoo Zarghami Moghaddam, Peiman Alesheikh and Ameneh Mohammadi

Page No. 57-60

The medicinal plants are used in traditional medicine to cure variety of diseases for many years. Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) in Apocynaceae family is a perennial herb endemic to Central Asia and it is an expectorant, diuretic and emetic agent as traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of methanol, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane extracts from aerial parts of Vincetoxicum nigrum against two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and one gram-negative bacteria strain (Escherichia coli).

Antibacterial activity was determined by using three methods disc diffusion, well diffusion and broth dilution for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)). The results demonstrated that plant extracts showed antimicrobial activities, however when compared to gentamicin, the results of this study are not significant. In conclusion the antibacterial activity exhibited by the extracts could be due to the presence of secondary metabolites which may act alone or synergistically for the inhibition of bacterial growth.

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Application of Fe3O4 as a magnetic nanocatalyst in the synthesis of photochromic spironaphthoxazines

Pargaonkar Jyotsna G., Patil Sanjay K., Patil Aniruddha B. and Vajekar Shailesh N.

Page No. 61-69

A greener route for the synthesis of photochromic spironaphthoxazines using a highly efficient and recyclable Fe3O4 magnetic nanocatalyst in greener solvent ethylene glycol has been demonstrated. This protocol offers several benefits such as mild reaction conditions, shorter reaction time (1 h), high yields (up to 93 %) and operational simplicity that make it a useful and attractive option for the synthesis of the spironaphthoxazines.

Interestingly, the magnetically recyclable Fe3O4 nanocatalyst was reused at least five times without substantial loss in catalytic activity. The structures of synthesized spironaphthoxazine derivatives were deduced by their 1H NMR spectra and melting points.

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Distribution and Sources of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments from Sadong River, Sarawak, Malaysia

Omolayo Ajoke Omorinoye, Zaini Bin Assim, Ismail Bin Jusoh, Naseer Inuwa Durumin Iya, Olufemi Sijuade Bamigboye and Ebenezer Aquisman Asare

Page No. 70-77

Twenty-one surface sediment samples collected from Sadong River, Sarawak were analysed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons were recovered from sediment by Soxhlet extraction and then analysed using gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS).

The sediments collected from Sadong River have high concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons which ranged from 310.41 to 1296.43 g/g. Evaluation of various n-alkane indices such carbon preference index (CPI: 1.32 to 1.98) and average chain length (ACL: 26.26-27.19) showed that there was a predominance of petrogenic sources of n-alkanes in the river and biogenic origin n-alkanes from vascular plants. The petrogenic source of n-alkanes are predominantly heavy and degraded oil with fresh oil inputs. It is believed that the hydrocarbons originated from both natural and anthropogenic sources. The hydrocarbons were mostly transferred by lateral input than atmospheric movements.

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Solvent extraction and supported liquid membrane studies for Ag(I) separation using a novel thiodiglycolamide-based ligand

Kumbhaj Shweta and Patwardhan Anand V.

Page No. 78-87

The present study deals with the solvent extraction and flat sheet supported liquid membrane studies of Ag(I) separation from nitric acid medium using a novel synthesized ligand, namely, N,N,N′,N′-tetraethyl-2,2-thiodiethanthiodiglycolamide (TETEDGA). The effect of various diluents and stripping reagents on the extraction of Ag(I) was studied. The solvent extraction studies showed complete extraction of Ag(I) in less than 5 min. The increase in nitric acid concentration resulted in increase in extraction of Ag(I). Stoichiometry of the extracted species was found to be AgNO3·TETEDGA by slope analysis method. The flat sheet supported liquid membrane studies showed quantitative transport of Ag(I), ~97%, from the feed (1 M HNO3) to the strippant (0.05 M thiosulfate) using 0.05 M TETEDGA as a carrier diluted in n-dodecane. Extraction time was ~360 min.

Parameters such as feed acidity, TETEDGA concentration in membrane phase, membrane porosity etc. were optimized to achieve maximum transport rate. Permeability coefficient value of 1.31×10–3 cm/s was observed using TETEDGA (0.05 M) as carrier, at 1 M HNO3 feed acidity across 0.2 µm PP as membrane. Ag(I) metal removal ranged between 94% and 96% when SLM system was applied to silver plating and photographic waste solution.

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Acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of leaf extract of Saraca asoca using zebrafish as model organism

Rajeev Rijo, Bamin Riicho Tilling, Vora Arth Mehul, Pande Sumit and Sarojini Suma

Page No. 88-94

Alzheimer’s disease, also called as ‘Senile Dementia’, is a progressive neurogenerative disease that slowly destroys important mental functions like memory, reasoning and thinking. A plethora of factors including genetics, lifestyle, environment, age etc. play a part in determining its incidence. One of the commonly used techniques to slow down the progression of Alzheimer’s is to reduce the functioning of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Plants have been found to be natural sources of AChE inhibitors. Hence the present investigation was an attempt to screen Ashoka plant (Saraca asoca) for such inhibitors. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) was used as a model organism due to its genetic similarities with humans.

Both in vivo and in vitro analyses using zebrafish indicated inhibitory action of the leaf extract on AChE. Gas Chromatography- Mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of the methanolic leaf extract and further docking studies of prominent phytochemicals revealed the AChE inhibitory potential of molecules like Stigmasterol, √-sitosterol, Vitamin E etc. Hence these molecules can be thought of as targets in the therapy of Alzheimer’s disease.

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Development and Characterization of Bacterial Consortium for Bioremediation of Hexavalent Chromium

Sakale S.S. and Chitanand M.P.

Page No. 95-101

Nineteen Cr resistant isolates were isolated from electroplating effluent samples, out of which five isolates showed higher MIC for Cr (VI). These five isolates were identified as C. amylolyticum, B. cereus, S. arlettae, A. pascens and C. funkei by 16s r-RNA gene sequencing. By using these five isolates, three bacterial consortia G, J and M were developed. These three consortia showed higher Cr reduction efficiencies than five individual isolates. The comparative study of three consortia represents that consortium M showed the highest Cr reduction efficiency than consortia G and J. Results of further characterization of consortium M showed that maximum growth as well as Cr (VI) reduction could be observed at pH 7 and temperature 30ᵒC. Consortium M could reduce Cr (VI) completely.

But as initial concentration of Cr (VI) was increased, Cr reduction ability was decreased. In the presence of heavy metals Cu, Ni and Zn, Cr (VI) reduction efficiency of Consortium M was increased whereas in the presence of heavy metals like Cd, Co and Pb, efficiency of chromium reduction was decreased. The results confirmed that the consortium developed in the present work rather than individual isolates is an effective tool of bioremediation for removal of toxic Cr (VI) from chromium contaminated sites.

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Application of Efficient Photocatalyst in the Degradation of Textile Dye Brilliant Blue R

Santhosh A.M., Yogendra K., Mahadevan K.M. and Madhusudhana N.

Page No. 102-106

The photocatalytic efficiency of synthesized Nickel Calciate [NiCaO2] nanoparticles against Brilliant Blue R [BBR] dye was examined in the current study. The Nickel Calciate photocatalyst was produced by a simple solution combustion (SSC) method using fuel acetamide, these photocatalysts were characterized by SEM, XRD, EDX and BET Surface area analysis. The optical band gap [OBG] was measured to be 2.86eV and average size was found to be 19nm. From the experimental results, the synthesized NiCaO2 degradation rate was high at 98.02%.

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Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Four Selected Medicinal Plants

Ahmed Ibrahim, Ayah Al-Basheer Al-Jeddi and Esam Abdulkader Elhefian

Page No. 107-111

Many medicinal plants play a vital role in medicine to prevent diseases due to the presence of various active chemical compounds such as flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds in them. The present study deals with the phytochemical screening of four selected medicinal plants belonging to different families i.e. nigella sativa, costus speciosus, olive and zizphus spina-christi (L.).

Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed that all the plants were found to contain alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids in different ratios while resins were present only in nigella sativa. Tannins and volatile oils were absent only in olive leaves while triterpenoids were absent only in nigella sativa. It was also observed that the extract of nigella sativa seeds had the highest total phenolic content while the extract of costus speciosus had the highest total flavonoids content among the four extracts of the plants studied.

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Anticancer and antioxidant activity of potential of 1-Benzyl Indole-3-Carboxy Aldehydine Thio Semi Carbazone Schiff base ligand

Pirakathiswaran G., Selvan A. and Dhasarathan P.

Page No. 112-118

Investigation of metal complex thiosemicarbazone anticancer and antioxidant drug candidates increases the metallopharmaceuticals study dramatically. Metal complex of thiosemicarbazone was prepared using copper and cobalt. In this investigation anticancer and antioxidant potential of metal complex thiosemicarbazone were screened using MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic effect was analyzed against MCF7 breast cancer cell lines.

Further mRNA expressions of marker genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 were evaluated which revealed that the gene expression was suppressed when treated with wet and dry 1-Benzyl Indole-3-Carboxy Aldehydine Thiosemi Carbazone. Our study elucidates that 1-Benzyl Indole-3-Carboxy Aldehydine Thiosemi Carbazone has a protective effect against breast cancer cell lines in dried condition which was better compared to wet conditions. Further studies need to be carried out to prepare drugs based on the source of 1-Benzyl Indole-3-Carboxy Aldehydine Thio Semi Carbazone against breast cancer.

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Larvicidal and anti-bacterial efficacy of Kapppaphycus alverazii methanol extract from Mandapam coast

Papitha Ruthiran, Chinnadurai Immanuel Selvaraj, Palanichamy V. and Madhumitha G.

Page No. 119-121

The marine seaweeds are one of the vital living resources. The present study is focused on antibacterial and larvicidal activity of marine red algae Kappaphycus alverazii. The antibacterial activity of methanol extract was analysed for in vitro antibacterial activity against selected test pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus cereus.

The methanol extract of red algae Kappaphycus alverazii showed maximum zone of inhibition (32 ± 3.1) against test pathogen of Escherichia coli. The in vitro mosquito larvicidal activity was performed with different concentrations using Anopheles stephensi. Methanol extract exhibited high mortality rate effective against Anopheles stephensi after 24 hours of exposure.

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Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Schiff Bases

Lad Manoj N., Patil Raju M. and Sathe Ghanasham B.

Page No. 122-124

The new series of Schiff bases derived from hydroxybenzohydrazide has been synthesized by the 1:1 molar condensation of 2-hydroxybenzohydrazide with substituted salicylaldehydes. All the compounds were characterized by IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, Mass Spectrometry and Elemental analysis.

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High Performance Liquid Chromatographic and Area under Curve spectrophotometric Methods for Estimation of Cefixime in Pure and Marketed Formulation: A Comparative Study

Mahdi Amer S., Abbas Ruba F. and Altahir Bahaa Malik

Page No. 125-133

Cefixime is an antibiotic useful for treating a variety of microorganism infections. In the present work, two rapid, specific, inexpensive and nontoxic methods were proposed for cefixime determination. Area under curve spectrophotometric and HPLC methods were depicted for the micro quantification of Cefixime in highly pure and local market formulation. The area under curve (first technique) used in calculation of the cefixime peak using a UV-visible spectrophotometer.

The HPLC (2nd technique) was depended on the purification of Cefixime by a C18 separating column 250mm (length of column) × 4.6 mm (diameter)and using methanol 50% (organic modifier) and deionized water 50% as a mobile phase. The isocratic flow with rate of 1 mL/min was applied, the temperature was 35 °C and the detection optimum wavelength was adjusted to 285 nm. Methods linearity was obtained with these study in the range of 5-35 µg/mL, the limit of detection was at level of 0.2076 µg/mL using HPLC and 0.2495 µg/mL using area under curve method.

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Assessment of marine sediment contamination and detection of their potential sources at Paradip port, East Coast of India

Satpathy Dharmendra, Mohapatra Ranjan Kumar, Acharya Chinmayee, Satapathy Deepty Ranjan and Panda Chitta Ranjan

Page No. 134-143

In the present study, the spatial and seasonal variations of some important sediment quality parameters were investigated at 10 different locations inside Paradip Port harbour, Odisha, India. A three years extensive study was conducted in three different seasons such as Pre-monsoon, Monsoon and Post monsoon. The main objective of this study was to assess the level of metal contamination of the surface sediment and to identify the potential sources contributing it. The elements like Cr, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Fe, texture pattern, organic carbon, total coliform bacteria (TCB), total viable bacterial (TVB) were also analysed to assess the level of anthropogenic effect on marine sediment. Evaluation of seasonal dynamics, contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and enrichment factor (EF) and multivariate statistical analysis (correlation coefficient and factor analysis) was carried out for the whole analysed sediment quality parameters.

During this study, contamination of port sediment by Cr (109.82-306.83 μg/g) was observed highest followed by Fe (2.60-6.14 wt %), Zn (22.98-157.07 μg/g), Pb, Ni (45.30-97.86 μg/g), Cu (32.21-112.55 μg/g), Co (18.14-78.57 μg/g) and Cd (0.58-6.14 μg/g). Similarly, organic carbon content, TVB and TCB of the port sediment was found in the range of 0.59-4.31 wt %, 205527-1959402 CFU/1g and 32857-463374 CFU/1g respectively. Both CF and EF values of Cd were observed highest as compared to other toxic metals at all the stations of Paradip port sediments and the order of their contamination is Cd > Cr > Pb > Co > Ni > Cu > Zn > Fe. From the multivariate statistical analysis, it was noted that metals like Cu, Zn and Fe were negatively correlated with other metals like Cr, Pb, Co, Ni. TVB and TCB load in sediment have a direct relation with organic carbon, silt and clay content in the sediment.

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Discovery and design of phosphodiesterase inhibitor as anti- psoriatic agent through structure based molecular docking

Surya M., Sathianarayanan S. and Saranya T.S.

Page No. 144-150

Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease which affects the skin with hyper proliferation of keratinocytes and relapsing episodes of inflammation. Phosphodiesterase 4(PDE4) is a decisive enzyme in the degradation of cAMP and is centrally involved in the cytokine production, angiogenesis and the functional properties of keratinocytes. Apremilast has anti-inflammatory properties used as phosphodiesterase inhibitor in psoriasis therapy but showing side effects like respiratory tract infection. Dimethyl fumarate is found to be the main therapeutic agent in anti-psoriatic therapy but it exhibits adverse effects such as depression and lymphocytopenia. Chemical conjugation of dimethyl fumarate with chitosan by using mercaptopropionic acid through Michael addition reaction (DMC conjugate) will enhance anti-psoriatic activity. The protein characterization was done by PROTPARAM and SOPMA method.

In this research docking studies, drug likeness and ADMETox have been executed for the analysis of lead moiety – protein interaction. From this analysis, it has been proved that 2QYL protein has more stability and better docking score compared to other proteins. The computational results convey that the DMC conjugate is an influential PDE4 antagonist to that of standard drug apremilast.

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Outlook on Thiazolidinone with Intoxicating Pharmacological potentials: A Review

Sharma Deeksha, Sarkar Anjana and Gupta Rajesh Kumar

Page No. 151-165

Today thiazolidinone has emerged as a chemical entity with a wide spectrum of pharmacological significance. Their therapeutic and pharmacological potential include diverse biological activities such as antitubercular, anti-HIV, antidiabetic, antibacterial, anticancer, wound healing capacity and antitumor action.

In the past, various novel methods were developed to synthesize various scaffolds and derivative of this class. The diverse scaffolds were tested against many diseases in biological assays and lots of modifications were made to reduce their toxicity. Thiazolidinone is the saturated forms of thiazole i.e. thiazolidine with a carbonyl group. The 1, 3 thiazolidine-4-ones have shown a great biological importance. The current review is focused on the synthetic development of thiazolidinone derivatives in contrast to its antitubercular and other therapeutic application.

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The expanding role of Nuclear Medicine in contemporary drug design and development

Kumar Vivek, Mujwar Somdutt and Shah Kamal

Page No. 166-172

The research area concerned with preparation of radioactive materials and their use for diagnostic purposes comes under nuclear medicine. The nuclear medicine provides a platform for the treatment or diagnosis of particular diseases. It implicate the use of radioactive tracer with the pharmaceutical active agent so that the maximal action with minimal side effects is seen.

Nuclear medicine facilitates the development of a new drug for ruinous diseases. It acts as boon for the society where patients feel helpless. It has wide applications used for sterilization, pharmacoscintigraphy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, alpha particle radiation etc.

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