Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Concentration dependent comparison of antibacterial potentials of bulk and nano copper oxide

Gupta Vijayta, Kant Vinay, Sharma Samriti and Meena Sharma

Page No. 1-7

Antimicrobial resistance is one of the leading problems for the globe. Metal oxides have exhibited significant antibacterial activities and integration of nanotechnology affords the prospective for the development of novel materials to overcome antimicrobial resistance. Thus, present study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial potential of synthesized copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles and their comparison with bulk CuO and standard antibiotics at different concentrations. CuO nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial potentials. Zone of inhibition revealed that antibacterial effect of CuO nanoparticles increased with concentration and action of CuO nanoparticles against E. coli was more in comparison to S. aureus.

The concentration dependent effect of CuO nanoparticles was observed from 0.48 to 500 µg/ml. The effect of CuO nanoparticles was markedly better than bulk CuO. Tetracycline and gentamicin did not show effect below 3.9 μg/ml and below 7.8 μg/ml respectively. The activity index and fold increase of CuO nanoparticles were higher than 1 and positive respectively w.r.t. tetracycline, gentamicin and bulk CuO. In conclusion, CuO nanoparticles possessed better antibacterial potential than their bulk form, tetracycline and gentamicin. Thus, applications of CuO nanoparticles may be extended in different areas like medical field, water disinfection, food packages etc.

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Anticataract Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria (Aleppo oak) on Glucose-Induced cataractogenesis using goat eye lens

D’souza Myrene R.

Page No. 8-14

Many medicinal plants are resurgent in the treatment of cataract, a major secondary complication of diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro anticataract activities of the hydromethanolic gall extract of Quercus infectoria (QIE) against glucose-induced cataractogenesis using goat lens. Freshly isolated goat lens was divided into the following five experimental groups and incubated for 72 h; artificial aqueous humor (Group I), 55 mM glucose alone (Group II), 100 μg/ml QIE+55 mM glucose (Group III), 200 μg/ml QIE+55 mM glucose (Group IV) and 12 ng/ml Enalapril+55 mM glucose (Group V). Post incubation, various biochemical parameters such as total protein, H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the lens homogenate.

The lens from the group II on incubation with glucose resulted in a mature cataract with significantly high levels of H2O2 ¬and MDA and decreased levels of total protein, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants compared to the group I. Groups III, IV and V demonstrated improved antioxidant potential indicating that simultaneous incubation with QIE extracts prevented the preoxidative damage caused by glucose. Thus, the hydromethanolic extract of galls of Q. infectoria protected the lens against glucose-induced oxidative damage which might be helpful in delaying the progression of cataract.

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Optimization of carbon mitigation efficiency of native microalgal species -Chlamydomonas globosa cultured under intermittent Supply of CO2

Menon Karthika S. and Harilal C.C.

Page No. 15-20

Escalating anthropogenic emissions of CO2 have induced global warming. Minimizing CO2 emissions through effective and economic means are of great urgency. Among various strategies of carbon sequestration, efforts using photosynthetic microalgae have received considerable attention in recent times. The present study attempts to assess the carbon sequestration efficiencies of indigenous freshwater microalga, Chlamydomonas globosa. Pure culture of C. globosa was maintained in the laboratory in Bolds Basal medium. Screening studies were carried out on this microalga with regard to their efficiencies in assimilating varying levels of intermittent supply of carbon dioxide.

For experimentation, microalgal culture medium was maintained in culture flasks and separated into three sets of five flasks each. The first set was maintained as control. The second set was supplied with ambient air (aerated set) and the third set with CO2 at specific dosages and an interval of two hours and are considered as CO2 treated set. An initial set was also maintained. The attributes like pH, conductivity, resistivity, micrometry, turbidity, cell count, biomass content, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide and alkalinity of the culture medium together with those of microalgal members were worked out. The results of the present study showed that in spite of slightly acidic pH and higher free CO2 in the culture medium, C. globosa from CO2 treated set (60 bubbles/2 hours) exhibited higher rate of DO production, turbidity, cell count and biomass production which characteristically indicated their efficiencies in CO2 assimilation.

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Capsicum Annuum Longum Stalk, A Prospective Sorbent for the Removal of Mercury from Simulated Waste Water: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

Swamy Akshatha G., Arland Shivanjali Esther, Kumar Jyotsna and Batakurki Sheetal

Page No. 21-39

Industrialization is a preliminary reason for decrease in water quality. Contamination of water is due to numerous factors mainly toxic chemicals, heavy metals etc. Mercury is widely used in many industrial processes, hence its release in environment is unavoidable. Non-biodegradable nature of mercury irreversibly damages the environment. Contamination of water by mercury is a global concern. Different techniques have been developed by the researchers and each technique has some advantages and disadvantages. Booming of the concept of green chemistry has drawn the attention of researchers. Purpose of proposed study is to develop Capsicum annuum longum stalks as a low cost adsorbent and to explore its efficacy as a green adsorbent for the removal of mercury from simulated waste water. In a quest to evaluate the adsorption efficiency of Capsicum annuum longum stalks for mercury, qualitative and quantitative phyto-chemical analysis of Capsicum annuum longum stalks were carried out.

Result reveals that 18.7% alkaloids, 10.6% flavonoids and 30.98% saponins are present in Capsicum annuum longum stalks. High percentage of Saponins justifies the formation of mercury complexes using Capsicum annuum longum stalks. SEM image of virgin adsorbent distinctly shows the porous surfaces which were seen blocked in SEM image of mercury loaded adsorbent. Prominent peaks of key functional groups are visible in FTIR spectra. Adsorption efficiency of proposed adsorbent was investigated by batch adsorption studies on various parameters. Optimized adsorption results were found for 0.03g of adsorbent dose at 50˚C when contact time was one hour and pH was maintained 8. Kinetics for the adsorption study can be described by pseudo second order model. Thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature.

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Investigation of Fish Genetic Diversity based on Nucleotide Composition of Mahseer, Tor sp. from Rajasthan

Summarwar Sudha, Yadav K.P. and Kumar Harendra

Page No. 40-45

In the present study diversity of fish species was studied based on their genetic variation particularly concerning conserved nucleotide composition of cytochrome oxidase I. The study was conducted in the Rajasthan state of India where various samples of fish Mahseer were collected from different divisions based on water divisions. A simple but versatile tool based on a global DNA barcode identification system was used for the identification of fishes. This DNA-based barcode system is based on genetic diversity being used to recognize relevant DNA barcode sequences.

In the overall study, total of 32 Tor tor fishes were collected from eight geographical sites of southern Rajasthan and a total of 32 Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA sequence for Tor tor were generated. The base composition analysis for the COI sequence revealed that the average T (thymine) content was the highest (28.90%) and the average G (guanine) content was the lowest (17.08%). The average AT (adenine -thymine) content (55.50%) was higher than the GC (guanine-cytosine) content (44.50%). Identification of the fish diversity based on COI would be useful to identify existing species that are adapted to the local climate and thus useful for aquatic farming and further devising the mechanism for maintaining the health of the ecosystem.

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Electrochemical analysis of oxytetracycline via the reaction of azo coupling by aniline

Hayat EL Ouafy, Tarik EL Ouafy, Aziz EL Haimouti and Moulay Abderrahim EL Mhammedi

Page No. 46-53

The study carried out in this work is simple, fast, accurate and low cost found on an approach based on the chronoamperometry (CA) method coupled to the azo coupling reaction for the electroanalysis of oxytetracycline (OTC). This reaction is carried out in two steps: the diazotization of aniline by sodium nitrite in an acid medium to form a cationic salt of benzenediazonium on the carbon paste electrode (CP) at 0-5 ° C and the coupling with OTC to form an azo dye derived from oxytetracycline. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Square wave voltammetry (SWV) and Chronoamperometric methods were used to determine the electrochemical behavior of the azo dye derived from oxytetracycline.

The limits of detection (LD) and quantification (LQ) obtained are 1.69 × 10-7 mol L-1 and 5.07 × 10-6 mol L-1 respectively. The relative standard deviation is 4%. This method was applied for the detection of OTC in the water of the Oum Erbia River in Morocco to confirm the reproducibility and the feasibility of the method in a real matrix. The calculated LD and LQ values are 2.78 × 10-7 mol L-1 and 8.34 × 10-6 mol L-1 respectively.

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Optimization of Epoxidation Oleic Acid Derived from Palm Kernel Oil by Peracids Mechanism

Jalil Mohd Jumain

Page No. 54-59

Studies pertaining to epoxidation of fatty acids have garnered much interest in recent years due to the rising demand for eco-friendly epoxides derived from vegetable oils. The epoxide is an important chemical precursor for the production of alcohols, glycols and polymers like polyesters and epoxy resin. Commercial epoxides available in the market are mainly petroleum and animal-based which are non-environmental friendly. Oleic acid (C18:1) derived from palm kernel oil contains the unsaturation double bond (C=C) in its long alkyl chain making it an attractive fatty acid for the production of an eco-friendly epoxide. The epoxidation of oleic acid was carried out by using in situ generated performic acid (HCOOOH) to produce epoxidized oleic acid. Performic acid was formed by mixing formic acid (as oxygen carrier) and hydrogen peroxide (as oxygen donor). The epoxidation reactions were conducted by varying the formic acid to oleic acid mole ratio, hydrogen peroxide to oleic acid mole ratio, reaction temperature, stirring speed and finally the type of catalyst. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed in the determination of optimal epoxidation reaction conditions based on the Taguchi optimization method.

The results indicated that optimum conditions occurred at a moderate temperature of 55°C, formic acid to oleic acid mole ratio of 1:1, hydrogen peroxide to oleic acid mole ratio of 1:1. Sulfuric acid was found to be the most efficient catalyst. It was found that a maximum relative conversion to oxirane (RCO) achieved was 87.61 % at optimal condition.

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Isolation, morphological, biochemical and functional characterization of Rhizobial residents in Vigna radiata from north east plane zone of Bihar

Malik Sumira, Kumar Ganesh, Shekhar Shashank and Paul Supratim

Page No. 60-65

The gram negative, symbiotic diazotrophic Rhizobium bacteria are the nitrogen fixing residents in the root nodules of their host leguminous crops. The present study was aimed to examine the presence of Rhizobia species through the isolation, morphological, biochemical characterization, functional and their root nodulating ability of Vigna radiata (Moong) in Araria, Katihar Saharsa and Purnia district from north east zone of Bihar as this region has lower yield of lentils due to presence of sandy soils. In the present studies, the isolation of the residential Rhizobial species in Vigna radiata’s roots was characterized morphologically, biochemically and functionally followed by pot analysis. A total of 17 root nodule inhabitating Rhizobial species as fast and slow growers were isolated from Araria, Katihar, Itahari and Purnia east four villages. Out of seventeen, eight Rhizobial isolates (fast and slow growers) and four control reference strains were selected for further morphological, biochemical and functional characterization.

In this study, we corroborate using the fast and slow growers as control reference strains cultured on the same medium as test isolates confirming the presence of six fast growers as Sinorhizobium fredii and two slow growers as Bradyrhizobium Elkanii or Bradyrhizobium japonicum in the given tested isolates. It is reported that the Rhizobial strains in Araria, Katihar and Purnia village’s field of Bihar were found to be one of the most efficient strains showing maximum scores in various growth parameters such as weight of seeds, number of nodules, plant’s length, weight, number of leaves, number of branches and number of pods as compared to other regions.

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New Natural Coagulant for Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Removal from Domestic Wastewater

Layla Abdulkareem Mokif

Page No. 66-68

Organic pollution is one of the biggest pollution problems having an influence on environment and ecosystem, so using of safe and low cost materials for removing pollution has become very necessary. In the work the possibility of using of natural materials as coagulant for removal of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) was investigated. The natural material which is used in this work as natural coagulant was peels of pumpkin seeds. The coagulants used in this work for removal of BOD5 from wastewater were aluminum sulfate Al2(SO4)3.18H2O (alum) and peels of pumpkin seeds. Jar test procedure was employed in the experiments.

Experiments had been carried out through two stages. The first one was using of alum and the other stage was using of peels of pumpkin seeds with the same condition. Results pointed out that maximum efficiency of removal BOD using peels of pumpkin seeds and alum was 41.16 % and 53.86 % respectively. The optimum coagulant doses for peels of pumpkin seeds and alum were 6 g/l and 2 g/l respectively which achieved maximum removal efficiency and minimum level of BOD5 concentration. The results indicated that the alum was more effective in BOD5 removal than peels of pumpkin seeds. In general, the results demonstrated that the natural coagulant (peels of pumpkin seeds) and alum could be used for removing BOD5 from wastewater.

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Synthesis of ionic imprinted membrane of gold (Au) particles based on polyeugenol using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross link agent

Muhammad Cholid Djunaidi, Linda Puspita Octaviani and Nor Basid Adiwibawa Prasetya

Page No. 69-77

Electronic waste contains gold among other metals with the high demand for gold causing gold reserves to decline, so it requires an effort to recover gold. In this research, the synthesis of ionic imprinted membrane (IIM)-Au(III) and polyeugenol-based with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) crosslinker for Au(III) selective transport is studied. Synthesis includes polymerization, binding of the mold ion, crosslinking and release of the printed ion, then adding Mr 125,000 polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to the 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent as the base membrane. In this study also, non-imprinted membrane (NIM) material is used as a comparison.

Membrane characterization using FTIR spectrophotometer and SEM-EDX. IIM-Au(III) selectivity was tested on a binary metal solution Au(III) with Cd(II), Pb(II) and Fe(III) and then analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results showed that IIM-Au(III) membrane phase was more selective in Au(III) compared to NIM in the order Fe(III)>Pb(II)>Cd(II).

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Indium Triflate Catalysed Efficient Synthesis of Quinoline Derivatives by Three Component One Pot Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction Strategy

Bhuyan Debajyoti

Page No. 78-81

An Indium triflate catalysed three component one pot aza-Diels-Alder reaction strategy has been developed for the synthesis of some quinoline derivatives from 2-naphthylamine aldehyde and methylacrylate in toluene.

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Ozone exposure promoting growth of Oryzae sativa (Rice) seedlings and inhibiting its pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae

Prashanthi Rajaram, Nagagireesh Bojanala and Nagarathna Amresh

Page No. 82-88

A laboratory study was undertaken to find the effect of ozone on the growth of rice seeds (Oryzae sativa Linn.) and also on the viability of its pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae that causes bacterial blight disease. We used a commercial ozone generator to produce ozone and tested its effects in our laboratory studies. Our results showed that ozone at a concentration of 0.2 ppm inhibited the rice pathogen X. oryzae and promoted growth of rice seedlings. We observed that inhibition of bacterial cells by ozone is attributed to altered membrane permeability leading to leakage of cellular constituents and resulting in possible cell death.

Furthermore, reduced Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) was also observed in ozone-treated bacterial cells indicating the inhibition of respiratory enzymes. Interestingly, ozone exposure increased both the root length and shoot length in rice seedlings that appeared healthier compared to untreated seeds. Thus, our study demonstrated that ozone at low concentrations could be used in agriculture both as a growth enhancer and for pathogen control.

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Water quality modelling of river Daya near Bhubaneswar, India

Agrawal Kamal Kishore, Panda Chittaranjan and Bhuyan Mahendra Kumar

Page No. 89-99

The water quality of the river Daya is degraded as it receives the wastewater of Bhubaneswar city through Gangua stream. The disposal of wastewater affects the water quality parameters like dissolved oxygen (DO), carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD, temperature, conductivity and alkalinity etc. QUAL2Kw, a river water quality model was used to simulate critical water quality parameters like Dissolved oxygen (DO), carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD) in 2017.

The study period was divided into three different months i.e. pre-monsoon April, monsoon month September and post-monsoon month of December. Calibration and validation were done with respect to major affected parameters like DO and BOD. Predicted and observed values of DO and CBOD were plotted and the coefficient of correlation (R2) values of DO and BOD were found to be 0.8819 and 0.9325,0.9273 and 0.8748 and 0.8985 and 0.9200 respectively in April, September and December, thus showing the satisfactory results by the model. The model was highly sensitive to headwater flow, point source flow, point source DO, CBOD, temperature values. In the river system this model may be used in decision making process for water pollution control and management.

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Flavonoid Compounds from leaf of Kalanchoe tomentosa

Lilis Siti Aisyah, Yenny Febriani Yun and Adelia Ilfani

Page No. 100-101

Kaempferol (1) had been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the leaf of Kalanchoe tomentosa collected from Cihideung, Lembang, Indonesia. The chemical structures of these compounds were identified based on their spectroscopic data including UV, IR, NMR spectra and and comparative data from previous journals. Inhibitory activity of alpha amylase showed that compounds showed IC50 values of 346 µU / mL. These results showed IC50 values greater than that of acarbose of 39.3 µU / mL.

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Molecular structure and vibrational spectroscopic studies of 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one

Nirwan R.S. and Shelar R.N.

Page No. 102-109

2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one is synthesized from (2E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one. The density functional theory (DFT), MP2 and RHF calculation of this molecule is performed using Gaussian 03 W program package. Quantum mechanical calculations of energy, dipole moment, optimized geometry and fundamental vibrational frequency are evaluated using the DFT, MP2 and RHF with standard B3LYP method employing the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set.

The experimental vibrational frequencies were compared with those obtained theoretically from DFT, MP2 and RHF and 1H NMR from DFT calculations. The difference between the observed and scaled frequencies was small. The frequencies were calculated with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method which are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

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Climatic influence on aerosol distribution in a suburban National Capital Region, India

Das Prabhu Prasad, Yadav Neenu and Garsa Kalpana

Page No. 110-115

Aerosol concentration across lower boundary layer of atmosphere indicates air pollution where it serves as nuclei for the development of smog in an urban setting because of the presence of varied causes of emission. Current study analyzes aerosol optical depth (AOD) observation which is a measure of the aerosol activity in a suburban National Capital Region of India using a sun-photometer to find out the influence of local climate on air pollution. The observations are carried out on days of varied climatic conditions such as foggy, cloudy, clear sky etc. with a 15-minute resolution. The measurements are made at discrete wavelengths of 380 nm, 500 nm, 675 nm, 870 nm and 1020 nm covering the Ultraviolet, Visible and Infra-Red regions of electromagnetic spectrum. The monthly variations of AOD indicates greater activity during winter periods and lesser concentrations during summer months.

The observations also portray a higher sensitivity of lower wavelength to AOD than the longer wavelength channels. Temporal interpolation of observations taking into consideration the concentration of AOD as Z-axis corroborates the above findings wherein distinct clusters of high values are depicted in the summer months indicating specific climatic episodes. In contrast, the summer months display clusters of low values signifying stable atmospheric conditions. Such information can assume a pivotal role in planning the pollution mitigation processes and formulating developmental programs needed by the Nation.

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Degradation of Azure A using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)-Zinc Oxide Composite

Kapoor Neha, Ameta Rakshit and Ameta Suresh C.

Page No. 116-121

Water pollution has emerged as a perilous issue to the mankind due to increasing industrialization and urbanization. Present investigation deals with the photocatalytic removal of Azure A using composite of zinc oxide and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The reaction was carried out spectrophotometrically at 680 nm to achieve the optimum reaction conditions such as pH, concentration of dye, amount of semiconductor and light intensity. It was found that the ZnO-MWCNT composite exhibited 2.50 and 2.25 times better photocatalytic degradation of the dye in comparison to its individual constituents MWCNT and ZnO respectively.

MWCNT adsorbs the Azure A while ZnO photocatalytically degrades the dye. ZnO-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite can be a promising candidate for treating the wastewater pollution.

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Adsorption of nitrate anions by Fe-loaded chitosan nutmeg shell powder: Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics

Pothiyil Veeravu Haseena, Chandran M. Akash, Gopal Madhu and Sahoo Dipak Kumar

Page No. 122-132

Fe-loaded chitosan nutmeg shell powder (Fe-CH-NSP) was synthesized, and its adsorption capacity for NO3-N was studied. Characterization of the adsorbents was conducted by SEM, TEM, FTIR and XRD analysis. The rise in diffraction peaks at 2θ = 36.00, and 38. 00 assigned to Fe-O bonds in the XRD spectra of Fe-CH-NSP after adsorption shows that new iron compounds have been formed. A pH range of 6-8 is found effective for the adsorption. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted with Langmuir (KL=0.207 L/mg, qm =83.33 mg/g and R2=0.99), Dubinin-Radushkevich (qs=69.55 mg/g, Kad=1×E-06 and R2=0.98), Tempkin (A=3.03 L/g, B=15.61 kJ/mol and R2=0.86), and Freundlich (Kf= 20.926 L/mg, n=2.75 and R2=0.75) isotherms. The mean free energy per molecule of adsorbent, E obtained was 0.707 kJ/mol.

In the kinetic data analysis, calculated qe value (50.0 mg/g) is comparable to experimental qe value (47.55 mg/g) postulating that the adsorption follows pseudo-second-order model. The analysis of adsorption diffusion model with Weber-Morris and Dunwald-Wagner model suggested both intraparticle and film diffusion involved in the mass transfer. All the findings pinpoint that removal of nitrate successfully occurred by ion exchange and electrostatic attraction. The values of thermodynamic parameters, ∆G (-5.02 to -4.16 kJ/mol), ∆H (-11.291 kJ/mol), ∆S (0.0204 kJ/mol/0K) proposed that the adsorption is spontaneous, exothermic and enthalpy driven.

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Efficient and ecofriendly synthesis of an antihistamine drug - Fexofenadine hydrochloride

Kompelli Sarat and Veera Raghava Sharma G.

Page No. 133-139

An ecofriendly and efficient synthesis of an API molecule fexofenadine hydrochloride is reported in this communication. R-software was found to be useful in identifying most suitable reaction conditions among many conditions suggested by the software. Experiments 1,3,8,16 gave high yield of the product. The products are characterized by spectral data such as 1HNMR, 13CNMR, IR and Mass.

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Treatment Technologies for Removal of Physical Contaminants from Municipal Wastewaters

Biswas A., Mailapalli D.R. and Raghuwanshi N.S.

Page No. 140-157

Treated municipal waste water can serve as a valuable resource to reduce the demand of fresh water for irrigation in number of countries. Over the years, several technologies e.g. coagulation and flocculation process, waste stabilisation pond, vermi-filtration, membrane bio-reactor, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and constructed wetlands have been developed to treat the municipal waste water. In the present study, a number of studies focusing on the performance of these treatment methods for removal of key physical impurities like total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity from municipal wastewater were critically discussed and their removal efficiencies were statistically analysed. The analysis revealed wide variation in the performances of different treatment technologies. Among the studied single technologies, the membrane bio-reactor was found to have the best potentiality to remove TSS and turbidity; however, high operational and maintenance costs make it unsuitable for use in developing countries.

On the other hand, vermi-filtration method and wetland system were found to be promising technologies for developing countries. Among the combined technologies, coagulation and adsorption showed good potential for removal of physical impurities from municipal wastewater.

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Types of supercapacitors and benefits of graphene and its derivatives as electrodes

Deepak A. and Cherian Pheba

Page No. 158-167

Modern era employs large scale, various huge and small systems for energy storage. Electrical power can be stored in two basic ways; in batteries and capacitors. This study presents a review on supercapacitors, its difference from batteries and capacitors, its evolution and different types, various methodologies implemented and experimented till now, advantages of using graphene and its different forms as an electrode material, techniques and steps involved in making of supercapacitors and a comparison between various methods.

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Removal of heavy metals from waste water by using Rice husk

Kaur Arshdeep and Bedi P.S.

Page No. 168-174

Rice is staple food of India and it is grown in abundance. Rice husk (RH) acts as sorbent materials which help in removal of environmental pollution. This property of rice hull is utilized for adsorption of various pollutants from waste water like dyes, toxic heavy metals, organic/Inorganic compounds etc. This study presents a broad overview of the potential of rice husk as adsorbent for expulsion of heavy metal from waste water. The rice husk has great efficiency for the removal of toxic heavy metals like Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se) and Nickel (Ni) from waste water.

In this review paper, methods for preparation of activated sorbents such as Acid treated rice husk (ARH), Sodium hydroxide treated rice husk (NRH),Sodium carbonate treated rice husk (NCRH), Epichlorohydrin treated rice husk (ERH), Tartaric acid modified rice husk (TARH) prepared from rice husk are also discussed. The various factors responsible for adsorption of heavy metals by using rice husk ash are taken into account like pH, temperature, contact time, chelators and particles size.

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