Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Antibacterial activity and DNA binding properties of bivalent metal complexes with p- dimethylaminio benzaldehyde acetoylhydrazone

Nagamani Y.B., Hussain Reddy K., Anuja K., Srinivasulu K. and Dhanalakshmi D.

Page No. 1-9

Copper(II), nickel(II), and cobalt(II) complexes of p-dimethylaminobanzaldehyde acetoylhydrazone (DAAH) are synthesized and characterized based on mass spectra, molar conductivity, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectral data. The complexes are found to be non-electrolytes. FT-IR data suggests that the DAAH acts as neutral bidentate ligand. The copper complex is further probed using ESR spectroscopy at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT). Spin Hamiltonian, orbital reduction and bonding parameters are calculated for the complex. The interactions of these complexes with calf thymus DNA have been investigated using absorption spectrophotometry.

The nickel complex binds DNA more strongly than copper and cobalt complexes. The metal complexes are screened for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacterial strains. Complexes showed higher activity than the metal free ligand. Cobalt complex shows more activity than any other two complexes under investigation.

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Biosorption of malachite green using Rhizopus species – An in vitro approach

Ashwini R. and Poonkothai M.

Page No. 10-20

The present investigation was carried out to assess the decolourisation of malachite green using Rhizopus species and its impact on the growth of cowpea. The effect of various optimization parameters (initial dye concentration, inoculum concentration, incubation period, pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources) on decolourization was investigated. Characterization of the dye-biosorbent interaction was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The per cent decolourisation by Rhizopus species was found to be maximum on 6th day in the medium amended with 0.01g of dye at pH 6 at 35°C with 1% inoculums supplemented with glucose and sodium nitrate (1%).

Moreover, the experimental data have been analysed using the linearized forms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Both the isotherms were found to provide best theoretical correlation for the experimental data for biosorption. Cow pea grown with microbially treated malachite green dye (T3) exhibited significant growth when compared to those grown in untreated dye solution (T2) indicating the non toxic nature of the dye degraded metabolites.

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A pilot study on the Cytochrome P450 content in the leaves of some plants

Chadha Sonia

Page No. 21-24

The environment in which a plant grows is made up of both nutrients and foreign substances termed as xenobiotics. Like most other organisms, plants have mechanisms to defend themselves against the potentially toxic effects of these xenobiotics. Cytochrome P450s (Cyt P450) form a large class of plant enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. These are membrane- bound proteins and depend on NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase to transfer reducing equivalents from NADPH. However, information regarding environmental detoxification by plant cytochromes is limited due to lack of characterization of plant cytochromes. Identification of plants with appreciable cytochrome P450 content will serve as a stepping stone in the molecular characterizations of plant cytochrome P450 enzymes, which may help in increasing their expression levels and creation of herbicide-resistant plants.

The present study aimed at determining the P450 content in leaves of Doob grass (Cynodon dactylon), Bamboo (Banbusa bamboos) and Neem (Azadirachta indica). Cytochrome P450 was solubilized from the microsomes using Triton X-114. Cytochrome P450 content was determined by CO-difference spectroscopy (A450-490). The maximum Cyt P450 content was there in the microsomes prepared from doob grass leaves. Significant Cyt P450 activity was recovered from doob grass with fold purification of 1.59. Doob grass was found to have the maximum cyt P450 content and activity and therefore may serve as a useful and economical sink for environmental pollutants. Further studies are needed to characterize the cytochrome P450 activity in doob grass and study the metabolism of herbicides by it.

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Acute and chronic effects of imidacloprid to anuran tadpoles (Polypedates teraiensis)

Tamuly Dulumoni, Basumata Caroline, Nath Ratul and Dey Mithra

Page No. 25-30

Impact of common agricultural pesticide Imidacloprid on the mortality and growth of Polypedates teraiensis tadpoles in acute and chronic exposure was studied. Acute exposure to high concentration was carried out to determine the LC50. The larval stages were exposed to imidacloprid concentrations of 18.5, 20, 21.5, 23, 24.5, 26, 27.5 mg/L. Mean percentage mortality increased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased pesticide concentration and exposure time. Percent mortality of tadpoles was significantly affected by concentrations F = 52.15, p ˂ 0.01. On exposure to sublethal concentration of 2.091, 1.045 and 0.697 mg/L, the percent mortality of tadpoles was significantly different (F = 8.87, p = 0.002) to the control except at 0.697 mg/L (p = 0.09).

The weight of the tadpoles decreased in all the concentrations with maximum reduction on 21 day. These treatment levels were selected based on the 1/10, 1/20 and 1/30 of their 96 h LC50 value. Body weight between treatment and control was analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA).

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Column Studies of Adsorption by using Dead Biomass of Eichhornia crassipes for Hexavalent Chromium

Kumar Sunil and Dhankhar Rajesh

Page No. 31-38

The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption potential of Eichhornia crassipes dead biomass for removal of hexavalent chromium in column experiments. The downward flow was maintained during experiments with the help of a peristaltic pump. The effects of various flow rates, bed heights and influent concentration were studied to demine the adsorption characteristics. Ct/C0 ratios were calculated by the breakthrough curve plot between Ct/C0 versus time, Ct was the effluent concentration at time t while C0 was the influent concentration of Cr (VI) during the experiment.

The study revealed that Cr (VI) sorption yield decreased with increasing flow rates and influent concentration of Cr (VI) solution while increased with increase in bed heights. Breakthrough times were decreased with an increasing flow rates but increased with increasing bed heights. Maximum breakthrough adsorption capacities (qb) were 14.9 at 10ml/min flow rate, 10.9 at 5cm bed height and 14.8 mg/g at 40 mg/L Cr (VI) concentration. Thomas kinetic model was better fitted as compared to Bohart-Adams model. Eichhornia crassipes dead biomass was found suitable for adsorption of Cr (VI) in the continuous process.

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Vegetable Peel Extract mediated Synthesis of Silver nanoparticles and its antimicrobial activities

Nandhini S. and Daniel Sheeba

Page No. 39-44

Green synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extract has been proposed as a cost effective, environmental friendly and a reliable alternative to chemical and physical methods for the production of nanoparticles. The present study focuses on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using vegetable peel extracts of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) and Snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina). This peel extracts acts as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the production of silver nanoparticles. The aqueous peel extracts of these vegetables are added separately to 1 mM silver nitrate solution and the formation of silver nanoparticles is primarily detected by the change of colour from colourless to reddish-brown.

The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 is confirmed by UV-Visible spectrum. FT-IR spectroscopy is performed to detect the bioactive molecules liable for reduction and capping of biogenic silver nanoparticles. The nature of the particle is determined from the X-ray diffraction analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the synthesised nanoparticles are tested against human pathogens and show toxic effects on Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerogenisa, Aspergillus and Candida albicans.

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Electrokinetic assisted phytoremediation of industrially heavy metal polluted soil of Pithampur, MP, India

Pathak Richa, Garg S.L. and Dwivedi M.K.

Page No. 45-54

The objective of the present work was to investigate the presence of heavy metals in soils of Pithampur, Madhya Pradesh (India) and their removal with coupled electrokinetic phytoremediation technology. The physicochemical characteristics and heavy metals like Chromium (Cr) and Lead (Pb) were analyzed in different soil samples collected from sector I, II and III of Pithampur industrial area. The concentration of Cr in soil samples was found under the WHO permissible limits in sector I and III, however, high value (161.63 mg/Kg) was found in soil samples collected from sector II. Similarly, the concentration of Pb in soil samples was found under the WHO permissible limit in sector II and III except sector I where it was 126.78mg/Kg. Hence the soil samples of sector I and sector II were chosen for further studies. Electrokinetic remediation of soil samples was carried at 50 V for 25 days.

The electrokinetic cell was sectioned into four compartments and analyzed for the concentrations of Cr and Pb. After electrokinetic remediation, the heavy metal contaminants got concentrated in different sections according to their charges. The soil in the four compartments of the electrokinetic cell was subjected to phytoremediation with Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). The efficiency of Brassica juncea was proved in remediating the heavy metals Cr and Pb from the polluted soils. This study proves the potential feasibility of electrokinetic assisted phytoremediation of Cr and Pb polluted soils with Indian mustard.

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Fight against Covid-19

Nagpal Jaspreet Singh, Srivastava Bharvee and Kumar Prashant

Page No. 55-58

COVID-19, virus attack is one of the biggest challenges mankind has faced since the Spanish flu in early 19th century. Although it is already declared global pandemic, but still there is a long way to go to win the battle against it. As it is respiratory disease, sanitation and social distancing are the only ways to fight against disease till the time a curable medicine is found.

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Electrochemical behavior of Heat treated Al 356 Alloy using N2-phenyl-1, 3, 5-triazine- 2, 4-diamine compound in 3.5% NaCl solution

Rakshitha B.K., Pruthviraj R.D. and Prasanna Kumar S.G.

Page No. 59-65

In the present research work, corrosion behavior of heat treated Al 356 alloy in 3.5% NaCl with and without heat treatment in different concentration of inhibitors is studied. Rectangular specimen 2cm X 1cm X 1mm was subjected heat treatment for 2h, 4h and 6 hours in Muffle furnace at 5500C. The specimen were tested for corrosion characterization of Electrochemical studies test. The result obtained is compared with heat treated and non-heat treated specimen. It was found that the heat treated specimen exhibits excellent corrosion Resistance when compared to non-heated specimen.

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Synthesis, spectral studies and antimicrobial evaluation of bivalent transition metal complexes of NNO donor hydrazone ligands

Sudesh and Sonika

Page No. 66-74

The complexes of transition metals have been developed by the reaction of metal chlorides of Zn(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cu(II) with the three Schiff base hydrazones named as 4-methyl-benzoic acid (phenyl-pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-hydrazide [L-1], 2-nitro-benzoic acid (phenyl-pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-hydrazide [L-2], 2-nitro-benzoic acid (methyl-pyridin-2-yl-methylene)-hydrazide [L-3]. The ligands were synthesized by reacting 2-benzoyl pyridine and 2- acetyl pyridine with derivatives of benzhydrazide. The synthesized ligands and metal complexes were analysed by using various spectroscopic methods like IR spectroscopy, Proton-NMR, 13C-NMR, ESR, mass spectrometry, electronic spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis of the complexes was also done to examine their thermal behavior.

It has been observed that the linkage with metal occurs through two nitrogen and one oxygen atoms present in the ligand. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of the synthesized Schiff base hydrazone ligands and their metal complexes were also assessed against number of bacterial species like gram negative Escherichia coli, gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, gram positive S. aureus, gram positive B. subtilis and two fungi namely C. albicans, A. niger. The results of antimicrobial activity reveal that all the metal complexes have better inhibitory action against complete range of the tested microorganisms as compared to the parent free ligands.

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Geochemical Signatures and Chemical Toxicity Assessment of Groundwater Uranium in the Agricultural Dominated Tehsil after Indian Summer Monsoon

Pandey Shwetank Shashi, Singh Bholey, Barwa Manjeet Singh, Gautam Y.P. and Pani Balaram

Page No. 75-82

The present study deals with the determination of uranium in drinkable groundwater samples by LED fluorimeter, contour analysis, PCA analysis and chemical toxicity assessment. The concentrations were found to be between 0.11 to 39.76 ppb with an average of 4.78 ppb. 7.14 % of samples exceed the WHO limits (30 ppb).

The calculated maximum hazard quotient was 0.64 which lies in the safe range value. Mean LADD was observed as 0.35 and 0.28 µg/kg per day in adults and children respectively which are less than the AERB prescribed limit of 4.53 µg/kg per day. Contour and PCA analysis shows that the ORP and fluoride were the driving factors of uranium in the studied area.

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Adsorption Kinetics, Isotherms and Thermodynamics for Malachite Green and Methylene Blue Removal in Water using Low-Cost Banana Peel Biosorbent

Zango Z.U., Dahiru M. and Haruna M.A.

Page No. 83-92

Low cost biosorbents are one of best promising materials for dye removal in wastewater treatment studies. They offer high removal efficiency and economic viability. In this work, we reported the adsorption of malachite green and methylene blue onto prepared Banana peel powder. The adsorbent was successfully characterized by various techniques. Proximate analysis has shown the presence of various components in the material such as carbohydrate and fiber, protein and fatty acids. FTIR results have confirmed the presence of various active functional groups of the various components determined from the proximate analysis test. EDS test revealed the elemental compositions of the material with rough porous surface from the corresponding SEM result.

The results from the effects of dyes concentration have shown the high uptake of the dyes at high concentrations with MG increasing from 77 to 125 mg/g and MB increasing from 82 to 138 mg/g with the dye concentrations of 50 – 200 mg/L. Pseudo second-order adsorption kinetics were found to be best to describe the mechanism of the adsorption with higher calculated equilibrium adsorption capacity (qe cal) values coefficients of correlations (R2 ≥ 0.99). Higher temperature (323K) was found to be more efficient for the removal of both dyes with the removal efficiency of 97% and 98% using 50 mg/L MG and MB respectively. From the thermodynamics studies, all the values of Gibbs free-energy change (ΔG°) were found to be negative and less than 20 kJ/mol which indicated the spontaneous nature of the adsorption. Langmuir model was found to be the best isotherm model for the dyes with the higher value of monolayer adsorption capacity (Qo) of 89.44 mgg-1 and 112.50 mgg-1 for MG and MB at higher temperature of 333K.

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Synthesis, Characterization, DFT, DNA binding/cleavage studies of Schiff base metal (II) complexes

Satish Naik, Parameshwara Naik P., Krishnamurthy G. and Manjuraj T.

Page No. 93-103

The novel complexes of the type [ML2Cl2] where M = Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and [FeL2Cl2]Cl with bioactive ligand L= (E)-N-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)-4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2yl)benzenamine were synthesized and characterized by different spectral techniques. The interaction of complexes with the cancer causing receptors was evaluated and results were compared with biological activity.

The DNA binding affinities of complexes with Calf thymus DNA was studied using absorption spectroscopy. Metal complexes are potent DNA intercalators with significant intrinsic binding constant (Kb) value.

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Central Composite Design Approach for the Optimisation of Catalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye using Silica-Silver Core-Shell Nanoparticles

Mohd N.K., Azmi A.A. and Khalik W.M.A.W.M.

Page No. 104-111

Bare silver particles are widely used as the catalyst in the degradation of azo dyes. But, the performance of bare silver particles has been known to have limitations compared to their core-shell nanostructure. Herein, this study aims to reveal the potential of silica-silver core-shell nanoparticles to act as a catalyst in the catalytic degradation of an azo dye, namely methyl orange dye. Silica particles were synthesised based on the Stӧber method. The deposition of a silver layer on the silica surface involved electrostatic attraction between [Ag(NH3)2]+ ions and silanol groups while the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone acts as a reducing and stabilising agent. The catalytic activity of silica-silver core-shell particles for the degradation of methyl orange dye was evaluated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Response surface methodology using 23-central composite design was conducted to assess the degradation efficiency.

The synergistic and antagonistic effects were evaluated based on three variables, initial concentration of methyl orange dye, a dosage of catalyst, and contact time. Optimum operation conditions as suggested by the model were set as follows; dosage of catalyst (0.5 mL), initial concentration of methyl orange (5.24 x 10-5 M) and contact time (5 minutes). Validation of optimum operation condition provided the percentage of dye degradation at 89.9% and 91.7% in deionised and environmental water samples respectively. Low relative standard deviation < 5% demonstrates the catalytic degradation method that has good precision and that can be suitably used for routine analysis.

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Study of microbial diversity and effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from Kaas Plateau, Western Ghats as Biostimulants in Floriculture

Patwardhan Rajashree B., Deshmukh Neha S., Deshmukh Neha B. and Gore Suneeti S.

Page No. 112-125

The present work was conducted on KAAS plateau soil to study different plant growth promoting traits of soil microorganisms and their effects on plant growth and flowering. Out of 153 microbial isolates from KAAS plateau soil, six isolates were decisively selected for further studies. These isolates demonstrated indole acetic acid, gibberellins, ammonia production, cellulase, amylase, caseinase activities and phosphate solubilization. The work was conducted to study the microbial diversity of soil. Shannon’s index displayed the diversity of KAAS plateau area whereas Simpson’s index showed the actual richness of KAAS plateau area. For the use of PGPR from KAAS soil for sustainable and safe agriculture, we applied consortium of these organisms on wheat and marigold plants.

The growth rates of inoculated plants accelerated with respect to the non-inoculated plants and interestingly, the inoculation accelerated the flowering time in Marigold plant. Thus, these findings provide novel and interesting aspects of PGPR consortium with number of properties and can be utilized to satisfy the future demand of augmented crop production attributed to increase in plant growth and to stimulate flowering.

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Studies on the effect of functional additives on the performance of epoxy based structural adhesive

Arora Pinklesh, Singh Rakesh Kumar and Kaicker Praveen Kumar

Page No. 126-134

In the present investigation, two components based structural epoxy adhesive system has been developed for bonding of aluminum as well as other dissimilar substrates. To develop the adhesive system, epoxy resins have been modified by incorporation of performance additives, alumina and aluminum. The effect of these additives was studied on bonding performance of adhesive by means of lap shear strength, pull off strength and hardness etc. The rheology of modified epoxy system was also studied to understand its ease of applicability. Thermal stability with any physical or chemical interaction was studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning Calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR and other relevant instrumental techniques. The morphology of the adhesives was also studied by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The present study correlates the effect of varying concentrations of performance additives i.e. alumina and aluminum on the thermal, mechanical and bonding properties of adhesive formulations for aluminum metal.

The studies showed remarkable improvement in performance of epoxy based adhesives. The significant enhancement in the glass transition and thermal behavior temperature of modified epoxy formulations was found vis-a-vis base epoxy polymer favoring high temperature applications. Lap shear strength of prepared adhesives exhibited an increase of ~20% by increasing the concentration of filler content from 0 to 40%. The prepared adhesive compositions showed very strong bonding with aluminum substrate.

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One-pot synthesis of bidentate ligand CHTC @ Cu (II), Ni (II), Co (II), and Zn (II) complexes for anti-mycobacterial and molecular docking studies

Ashma A., Anandhavelu S., Anbarasu S. and Askar Ali S.J.

Page No. 135-147

Transition materials have proved its efficacy as potential antimicrobial, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory agents, and also anti-tubercular activity. In this study, novel ligand (E)-N-cyclohexyl-2-((5-nitrothiophen-2-yl) methylene) hydrazine carbothioamide (CHTC) was derived from 4-cyclohexyl-3-thiosemicarbazide and 5-nitro-2-thiophene carboxaldehyde. The synthesized ligand CHTC was treated with Cu (II), Ni (II), Co (II), and Zn (II) chloride in presence of methanol solution. The synthesized metal complexes were characterized by functional groups using UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, single crystal x-ray diffraction, ESI-Mass spectroscopy and thermal analysis.

The synthesized ligand (CHTC) and its metal complexes were screened for antimicrobial activity including anti-tubercular activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The zinc (II) and nickel (II) complexes showed a broad antimicrobial activity against the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus facecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal species Candida albicans whereas CHTC-Zn only showed moderate anti-tubercular activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv at 250µg/ml concentration compared to other complexes.

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A Green Chemical Approach to remove Chromium from Wastewater using Bifunctional Ionic liquid

Devi Niharbala and Mishra Bibhuti Bhusan

Page No. 148-152

In this study, a typical ionic liquid (IL) was used namely[trioctylmethylammonium / 2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinate] [A336/Cy272] for chromium removal. The IL extracts metal salts rather than metal ions and the beauty of the extractant is that no ionic component is released to the aqueous solution in the process of extraction. The extraction of Cr(VI) from the synthetic K2Cr2O7 solution was carried out using 1M of the IL at an A:O ratio of 20:1.

The extraction parameters such as initial pH of the solution, contact time and temperature were studied during different run of the experiment. Lower pH favoured the extraction efficiency as the Cr(VI) extraction increased with the decrease of pH of the solution. A maximum of 200 mg/L Cr(VI) could be extracted at pH 1.0 within an equilibrium time of 45 min. Increasing temperature had a negative effect on the Cr(VI) extraction showing that the process is exothermic in nature. The optimum condition obtained from the batch scale extraction process for the synthetic Cr(VI) solution was further applied to extractCr(VI) from the water sample collected from the contaminated NALA of Sukinda valley of Odisha.

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Thermal and mechanical properties of fumaric acid modified unsaturated Polyester resin and Jute composite

Patel R.B.

Page No. 153-160

Unsaturated polyester resin has been synthesized using maleic anhydride, phthalic anhydride, propylene glycol and fumaric acid. Synthesized resin, stryrine and jute fiber along with benzoyl peroxide as catalyst were used for the composite preparation. Mechanical and thermal properties of composites were evaluated. The obtained composites were characterized by TGA and DSC. The DSC scans of resins are analyzed by the method proposed by Borchardt and Daniels.

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Effect of radiation and antioxidant diet on the efficacy of silk synthesis of the silkworm, Bombyx Mori

Radha M.J., Jalaja H.D. and Lakshmi P.N.

Page No. 161-170

Bombyx mori is a beneficial and environment friendly insect reared commercially for silk. In today’s scenario, the silk farming shows a great downfall due to the promotion of synthetic materials. Thereby it is necessary to upsurge the production of silk fibres. The efficacy of silk is achieved through the growth and development of silkworms at a higher rate through supplementing their feed with antioxidant from the plant sources. Later the same worms were exposed to low dose radiation from the gamma source. These are considered as experimental groups while the worms without the supplement of antioxidant and radiation exposure, control group. The adaptability of the insects in terms of growth and economic parameters viz., silk filament, cocoon weight, shell weight and pupal weight was recorded. The total proteins in hemolymph and silk gland were assessed.

The present study results indicated the increase in the efficacy of silk as well as economic traits in all the experimental groups compared to the control group. The assessed total proteins showed an increment in the silk gland and hemolymph was statistically significant. The larvae exposed to gamma radiation at low doses reflects hormesis that has exerted stimulatory and beneficial effects on the efficacy of silk production.

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Impact of COVID 19 Lockdown: A Move towards Sustainable Environment

Banerjee Munmun, Awasthi Garima and Prakash Jyoti

Page No. 171-181

Corona virus originated in the capital of Hubei province in China named Wuhan. At the end of December 2019, China reported cases of an unknown disease with pneumonia like symptoms. By January 2020, corona virus transmitted to other countries as well and the disease caused by it was named as COVID-19 by the World Health Organization on 11th February 2020. After this, COVID-19 did not take more than a month’s time to attain the status of global pandemic. Haunted by the alarming intensity of the transmission of this disease, most of the countries implemented either a complete or partial lockdown. The lockdown which has been proposed as the most effective strategy to curb transmission so far surprisingly did wonders for the nature. There have been reports from NASA and other research institutions regarding considerable drop in emissions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen, sulphur and carbon in the atmosphere. The local, state and national authorities of several countries have reported enhanced water quality of various water bodies.

The researchers are also working on various aspects to check the quality parameters of air and water. Lastly, the lockdown has provided an opportunity to wildlife for reclaiming their areas. However, in order to convert these short- term effects to a lasting impact, we need to plan for sustainable development with the same urgency that has been employed to deal with the pandemic. In current study we have studied environmental aspects which are having positive impact due to lockdown and also the strategies to maintain green and clean environment for long lasting.

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Chenopodium album Linn.: Phytoconstituents, Medicinal and Biological Properties

Arora Charu and Tamrakar Vinita

Page No. 182-195

Over the last few years, focus on plant research has increased and researchers have aimed at characterizing and validating plant derived substances for the treatment of various ailments of human beings, animals and crops. Medicinal plant species, having great therapeutic properties, are being explored for various purposes. It has been already proved that various parts of plants such as Leaves, fruits, seeds etc. provide health and nutrition promoting compounds. Chenopodium album Linn. (Family: chenopodiaceae) commonly known as bathua is used as ingredient in various Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha and other traditional medicines.

In present study we have reviewed the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Chenopodium album Linn. The crude extract of C. album exhibited biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-cancer and anti-microbial activities. Number of chemical constituents namely α-pinene, linalool linaly acetate, gallic acid, vallinic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, ascorbic acid, isorhamnetin, chenoalbicin, 20-hydroxyecdysone 20,22- monoacetonides, 20-hydroxyecdysone 2, 3-monoacetonides poststerone etc. have been isolated, characterized and evaluated for biological activities. This review study will be helpful for upcoming research activities on Chenopodium album by providing updated information on the phytochemical constituents and medicinal properties of the plant to a possible extent with relevant data. Further research is needed to explore its isolated bioactive compounds and their molecular mechanism of action. Full Text

COVID-19, an emerging pandemic infection

Mishra Arunesh K., Pratibha, Das Megha and Das Ratnesh

Page No. 196-200

COVID-19 disease is spreading rapidly in the form of pandemic in the whole world. It has taken the form of a global pandemic on which World Health Organization (WHO) has also expressed concern. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a type of respiratory syndrome that is spread by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Infection of this particular nCoV-2 virus occurs in humans, and the side effects of which are increasing rapidly, on which fast research is also being done. The "n" in the 2019-n CoV name refers to the novel because it exhibits differences from the genomes of other (previously known) coronaviruses. However, virologists believe that variation in the genome may be the cause of its lethality. Seeing the potential risk of this epidemic, scientists and physicians are constantly making efforts to understand this new virus and the pathophysiology of the disease in order to uncover possible treatments and discover effective therapeutic agents and vaccines.

Covid-19 is testing the ability for rapid development, testing and deployment of drugs, presenting both opportunities and challenges to our country's drug-evaluation system. Several aspects of the scientists' response raise serious concerns, highlighting how procedures for the evaluation and approval of drugs can flare up during a public health crisis. The global epidemic has put pressure on physicians and scientists to act rapidly to provide medicines to patients. Very limited observations and anecdotal evidence raised the possibility that anti-malarial drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine may have opposite activity to SARS-CoV-2.

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Current Scenario of Coronavirus (COVID-19)

Gupta Geetika, Kumar Ashok and Bharadwaj Alok

Page No. 201-204

‘COVID-19’ is the most dangerous and lethal disease in the present scenario that is caused by Coronavirus belonging to the genus Coronaviridae. Human coronaviruses are posing threat to human population globally. Emergence of SARS – CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus- 2) in the 21st century is a serious global health concern. Wuhan market in China is the origin place of coronavirus infection spreading in all over world. It was isolated on 7th January 2020 in China. Now COVID-19 is a pandemic disease affecting many people globally.

WHO named this new virus as coronavirus caused by SARS-COV-2 and reported that around 20% people get serious illness with COVID-19. WHO suggested the people for avoiding crowded public places and close contact to infected persons. Washing of hands and use of disinfectants should be very essential. Lockdown is the best action for the prevention of coronavirus taken by most of countries. Food items which have source of Vitamin C are very useful against the virus. Phyllanthus emblica has highest percentage of vitamin C.

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An insight into the SARS-CoV-2: Use of zinc ionophores - a blockbuster approach

Gupta Jeetendra Kumar

Page No. 205-213

Erratic disturbance in biome is due to the daredevil conduct and dubious behavior of human beings. Noxious pestilences on earth have putdown the whole humankind in serious difficulties. At present the world is facing humanity’s biggest crisis, that is, coronavirus pandemic. There are six divergent types of corona viruses which have been indentified till date. Out of these, four types have honed potential to cause common cold infections in human beings. The virus SARS-CoV-2 is one of them which is extremely treacherous and threatening the world with their catastrophic emergence. This virus has severe potency to induce acute respiratory setback in human beings. It was initially reported in Wuhan, a city of central China, and the virus has subsequently spread to other countries of Asia, America, Europe and Africa continents. At present, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has taken the configuration of dreadful pandemic and abominably affecting the global health at alarming level. The intermediary host of this virus and the subsequent mode of transmission are still unknown, but the transmission from human to human is broadly confirmed.

Several drugs like remdesivir, doxycycline, azithromycin, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been tried in the course of treatment. As per existing literature, these drugs reduce the severity of illnesses in the patients of COVID-19, however the promising mechanism of cure has not yet been approved or peer-reviewed. Many clinical studies are still underway worldwide. Increasing the intracellular concentration of zinc has been observed to impair the replication of variety of RNA viruses. Zinc ionophores are the zinc binding compounds that target viral RNA polymerase in order to inhibit viral replication. Despite these activities, zinc also possesses anti-inflammatory as well as immunomodulatory activities. Hence, the use of zinc ionophore may be a blockbuster against the virus SARS-CoV-2. All-inclusive clinical studies can be carried out in order to assess the synergism of zinc with the existing ionophores against the COVID-19.

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