Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Vol. 5(4) December 2001

Examination of Acid Lye Reaction of Red Mud from the Alumina Factory in Podgorica :

N.Z. Blagojevic, R.M. Zejnilovic and M. Krgovic,

Aluminium manufacturing from bauxite performed by Bayer method produces great amount of the red mud as a slag. Annually it is possible to make more than one million tones of the red mud1. A great amount of the red mud deposit as well as its high caustic module present one very important problem related to environmental contamination. Therefore, the processes of selective dissolution of the red mud macroscopic components from Alumina Factory in Podgorica were analyzed in mineral acids. The aim of these analysis was to establish the influence of several parameters (such as the conditions for lye reaction, the red mud and an acid contact time, the influences of the red mud alkalescence and a reducer) on the efficiency of the acid lye reaction of the red mud. The red mud samples, consisting of more than 14 wt. % SiO2 and 40-42 wt. % Fe2O3 were treated with mineral acids at room temperature and barometric pressure, that presents, comparing to the previous methods, a new way of the red mud treatment by mineral acids. At tested working conditions it is possible to chlorinate up to 99.9 wt.% iron from the red mud and up to 70 wt.% aluminium, transforming them to FeCl3 and AlCl3 respectively. The residue of about 20 wt.% starting material, which can be conditionally named white bauxite consists of 20 wt.% Al2O3, 17wt.% TiO2 and 37 wt.% SiO2. This product would be applicable in ceramic industry (for bricks and mineral fibres), otherwise it could be a source of Al2O3 and TiO2 and its further treating as well could make aluminium sulphate or aluminium chloride.

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The Ecology of Landslides in Eastern Bhutan : Causes and Consequences:

Dipayan Dey and Sadruddin

Landslide is a sudden physiographic catastrophe that claims lots of life and property every year. Huge loss of natural resources and biodiversity is also associated with such events. The suddenness of the event has always made men idle spectators. Studies on the cause, mechanism and prevention, those too with reference to Eastern Himalayas, are scanty. Review of literature suggests about correlation of the event with climatic thresholds and terrain textures. Some studies in relation to impact assessment and stabilization of soil surface have also been done already. The present study identifies the cause and consequences of landslides in some parts of Eastern Bhutan from a different angle, in relation to soil physic chemistry and vegetation. Findings reveal that high content of organic matter, nitrates and carbonates have positive correlation to landslides; as well as physical features of the soil like porosity and water holding capacity also has bearing with it. Vegetation type, forest patterns and plant species are also important factors that are linked to landslides. The results also reveal that human interferences and activities trigger such physiographic processes and may lead to further destabilization of surface. Preventive measures of landslide have also been suggested that need to be applied and tested for the purpose of controlling down earth movements. The present report can be regarded as a pioneer work on landslide in this area.

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Research Report: Effect of Technical Endosulphan and its isomers on Nitrous Oxide emission from Alluvial Soil:

Shalini Singh, S. Kumar, P. Dureja and N. Sethunathan

In an incubation study, the effect of technical endosulphan and its two isomers (α and β-endosulphan) was evaluated on the production and emission of N2O from alluvial soil. The studies revealed that the application of technical endosulphan (1 ppm) which is higher than the recommended dose was effective in reducing N2O emission by 62%. Amongst the two isomers of endosulphan, β-isomer had pronounced effect on N2O inhibition (72%) against αisomer (8.8%). The total N2O emission during the incubation period of 30 days varied between 357 and 1155 g/kg soil with the use of endosulphan and its isomers as compared to control (1243 g/kg) with no endosulphan.

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Effect of Repeated Applications of Pesticides used on Cotton on Soil Properties under Subtropical Conditions:

S.M.A.D. Zayed, M. Farghaly, S.M. Soliman and H. Taha

Repeated application of monocrotophos, methomyl and carbaryl for four years considerably reduced microbial count, iron reduction, nitrification and arginine deaminase activity in soil. The microbial activities seemed to recover several weeks following pesticide application. The inhibition of enzyme activities was in general more obvious during second to the fourth year. The maximum inhibition of iron reduction capacity and arginine deaminase activity was observed by the end of the fourth year and amounted to about 90% of control values. No pronounced effect of the used insecticides on respiration and dehydrogenase activity could be detected over the experimental period.

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Intervention Strategy Aimed at Minimising the Incident of Respiratory Illnesses caused by the Indoor Air Pollution:

D.K. Sanyal and M.W. Mneno

This pilot project was undertaken in Ku-Ntselamanzi Township (KNT), mostly unplanned, suburban residential areas in the district of Victoria East. Its population of approximately 18,000 is made up of three distinctly different communities: Category 1 of very low average monthly income, Category 2 of low average monthly income and Category 3 of middle income. For additional information Mavuso Location (ML) category 4 was included in 1999 which has the comparable socio-economic status as that of Category 1. On the basis of a health profile of children, 190 households were selected, taking 50, 40, 25 and 75 from communities 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively for monitoring indoor gaseous pollutants such as CO, NO2 and SO2. Pollutants were recorded continuously for 6 hours in the cooking and in the living areas, once in the morning and again in the afternoon. To account for any seasonal variation, measurements were repeated three times during February 1996 and December 1997 (KNT) and January to December 1999 for category 4 [ML]. The measured concentrations of CO in the cooking areas were 180 mg m3 (148-420, s.d. 107), 118 mg m3 (66-199, s.d. 72), 67 mg m3 (47-121, s.d. 41) and 198 mg m3 (162-468, s.d. 121) in the categories 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The corresponding afternoon averages were 88 mg m3 (66-210, s.d. 58), 59 mg m3 (53-158, s.d. 37), 47 mg m3 (12-47, s.d. 41) and 83 mg m3 (63-199, s.d. 62). The concentrations of NO2 were higher in the living areas than elsewhere, whereas the concentrations of SO2 were significantly higher in the cooking areas. The levels of these two pollutants exceeded up to 12 times for NO2 and 13 times for SO2 of the corresponding recommended risk-free levels. High levels of recurring acute respiratory infections among children were more prevalent in the very low and low income communities of poorly ventilated households using firewood and coal as the main source of energy supply. On the basis of these results stove programme as part of the intervention strategy was introduced in January2000 on a very small scale to household with most serious health problems in the categories 1, 2 and 4. Gas stove and Low smoke paraffin heaters were provided for 12 months to each household in category 1 and 4 and smokeless coal and similar type paraffin heaters to each household in category 2. These measures resulted in much reduced concentrations of indoor pollution leading to significantly lower incidence of ARI.

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Sorption of arsenic anion by Al-poly (hydroxamic acid) resin:

M.J.Haron, W.M.Z. Wan Yunus and K.W. Leng

This paper reports the results on the use of aluminium loaded-poly (hydroxamic acid) chelating resin (AIPHA) for sorption of arsenate ions from aqueous solution. The arsenate sorption by the AIPHA resin complex was effective in acidic pH range of 3 to 6.5. The sorption followed the Langmuir model with maximum capacity of 2.1 mmol As per g resin and the energy constant of 0.01 L/g. The sorption also followed first order kinetic equation with rate constant of 0.016 min1. Common anions Cl, NO3 and SO42 did not interfere the arsenate sorption but it was seriously interfered by phosphate. The mechanism of arsenate sorption by the resin is discussed. The resin was found effective in removing arsenic ions from waste water samples of semiconductor and wood treatment industries.

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Software for Ambient Air Quality Index Calculation:

A. Bhaskaran and R.D. Rajan

Environment protection is of prime concern in the 21st century. Urbanization of the outskirts of metropolitan cities has left the cities heavily populated. The pollutants present in the ambient air are affecting the health of the people. Apart from this the industrialization and plying of unconditioned vehicles contribute much to air pollution. To create awareness about the quality of ambient air, the concentration of the pollutants are advertised in daily newspapers and announced through the electronic media. To analyze the data collected software is developed by the authors in C++ language. This paper gives the details about the AQI and associated software.

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Nuclear Techniques in the Coal Mines of Iran:

A. Esmaeilnia Shiravani and H. Ghafourian

In this paper we present methods for measuring the ash content of coal by nuclear techniques. There are different nuclear techniques to measure the percentage of ash content. We compare the ash content of coal by gamma-gamma, promptgamma-ray neutron activation analysis, natural gamma-ray activity and dual energy gamma-ray transmission techniques from coal mine of Loushan, Iran. The results show that the last method is preferable to the other methods. The reason for this is that it is very quick, inexpensive and easy to do.

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A New Example of Diketopiperazine Isolation from Marine Actinomycete:

Andrija A. Smelcerovic, Radosav M. Palic, Sinisa M. Djordjevic

(6S, 9S)-cyclo(prolylvalyl) was isolated from marine actinomycete B 1758. Proposed structure is based on spectroscopic measurements. This is a new example of diketopiperazine isolation from marine sources.

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Polarographic Study of Few Metal Complex with L-Hydroxy Proline:

Z.A. Filmwala and P.S. Fernandes

The stability constant values of metal complexes obtained by reaction between L-Hydroxy Proline and metal ions of Cd(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), In(II) and Sb(III) were determined polarographically using 0.5M KNO3 as supporting elctrolyte [For Sb(III) complex 0.1 M KC1 is used instead of 0.5 M KNO3].

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Study on Ayurvedic Bhasmas on the basis of modern analytical Instrumentation Techniques:

L.V. Krishnamurthy and R.T. Sane

Ayurvedic Bhasmas are metallic oxides. An attempt has been made to investigate important bhasmas manufactured by different pharmaceutical houses. The analysis of Loha Bhasma [R] is reported. They are obtained directly from the manufacturers. Modern analytical instrumentation techniques are used to understand the composition and structural characterization. These studies play a great role in giving importance and rational and scientific evidences to Ayurvedic medicines and establish assistance to research and development department and manufacturing units.

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Short Communication : HPLC Method for Estimation of Losartan Potassium from Tablet Formulation :

I. Singhvi

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Review : Pheromones and Their Controlled Release Formulations in Pest Control

Kartick Gupta and M. Yaseen

A brief review is presented on pheromones and pheromone as a tool in pest control. Identification of pheromones, their controlled release formulations as dispensers, estimation of their release from dispensers, their protection from oxidation uvlight and their use in pest control in agricultural fields have also been reviewed.

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