Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Vol. 5(2) June 2001

Utilization of Floating Materials Coated with TiO2 film for Photodegradation of Organic Compounds

Katumitu Hayakawa, Chinatsu Yokobaba, Narumi Ichiki, Muh. Zakir Muzakkar, Takayoshi Shinmura and Shigeru Nagaoka

The floating photocatalysts were synthesized by coating inorganic balloon (PC-S1) and pumice with TiO2 film, which was prepared by the painting of TiO2 fine powder and the sol-gel technique from titanium tetraisopropoxide respectively and the photocatalytic degradation was examined for some organic compounds and dyestuffs. The effective photodegradation of some organic compounds and dyestuffs was observed in the presence of the floating photocatalysts PC-S1 and Pumice under UV and outdoor irradiations. The floating photocatalysts were effective for the highly concentrated dye solutions of absorbance 5.0 at 1 cm light-path length. The rate of photodegradation was not high for the floating photocatalysts and it took many days for the complete decomposition of some organic compounds under the outdoor irradiation. These results suggest a potential use of the floating photocatalysts for waste processing of water combined with a slow degradation technique like biodegradation.

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Effluent treatment of Fungicide manufacturing Industrial Waste by Combination of Electrodialysis and Cyanobacteria

G.S. Trivedi, P. Ray, B.G. Shah, S.K. Adhikary, S. Mishra, V.G. Sravan Kumar, A. Tewari and P.K. Ghosh

Electrodialysis and Cyanobacteria in combination have proved useful in treatment of industrial waste effluent. Marine Cyanobacteria are preferred because they are valuable and they grow in high salt concentrations.

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Properties of Zeolite ZSM 5 prepared in presence of Sodium Dodecylsulfate and/or Tetrapropyl Ammonium Bromide

Mohd. Zobir bin Hussein, Zulkarnain Zainal and Saiful Adli Masdan

Zeolite ZSM 5 was prepared in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), tetrapropyl ammonium bromide (TPB) or the mixture of TPB-SDS at various ratios. The crystal morphology of the resulting material is dependent on the templating agent. A squre rod or a ball-like structure was obtained when only SDS or TPB was used. By using a mixture of both SDS and TPB at different ratios as a templating agent, a mixture of both the above crystal morphologies were obtained. The molecular structure of the template is believed, somehow to play a role as morphological structure directing agent. PXRD analysis shows that no significant difference can be observed in diffractograms. The Si/A1 ratio of the as synthesized ZSM 5 is also dependent on the templating agent-A ratio of around 40 was obtained when only TPB was used compared to about 80 SDS. Slightly different surface area and porosity of the zeolites were observed when different ratios of SDS to TPB were used. The resulting samples have a total surface area of approximately 470-500m2/g with about 50% contribution of micropores.

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Production of Extracellular Lipase from a Local Isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Soil Complexes

E. Sharan and M.Y. Kamat

A local isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from soil identified as a promising producer of extracellular thermostable alkaline lipase was modulated to give higher yields of 24.42 LU/ml by submerged cultivation at shake flask level. Kinetics of lipase production at the shake flask level and production profile in a five liter fermentor were studied with respect to the standardised medium and growth conditions. As increasing lipase activity declined after 48 hours, phenyl methane sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) incorporated in the medium restricted protease action. Incorporation of PMSF not only prolonged the production phase of lipase but also resulted in greater stability of the enzyme in the fermentation medium which lasted upto 144 hours. As compared to shake flask results a 2.6 fold increase in lipase production was obtained in the fermentor (63, 68 LU/ml) after 96 hours.

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Comparative Decolorisation Study of Malachite Green Dye Solutions using Synthetic and Natural Coagulants

Rashmi Sanghi and Ajay Singh

The aqueous solution of a highly coloured basic dye Malachite Green was taken as a case study. Complete decolorisation could be achieved by optimising the parameters such as pH, dosage, turbidity and contact time. Comparative studies of coagulation abilities of monomeric alum versus polymeric PAC were taken up. The addition of bentonite enhanced the colour removal efficiency of the coagulants. The role of naturally occuring polyelectrolyte sodium alginate and nirmali seed as coagulant aids was also studied.

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Simultaneous Determination of Heavy Metals in White Sugar and Final Molasses using Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry and Differential Pulse Polarography

Rakesh Kumar Mahajan and Anita Mahajan

The present paper deals with the simultaneous determination of some heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) in sugar and final molasses samples using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. This method is based on the preconcentration adsorption of all these metals simultaneously at hanging mercury dropping electrode (HMDE) as amalgam at adsorption potential of 1.25 V versus Ag/AgCl for 240 seconds. The voltammograms were recorded in the anodic stripping voltammetric mode. The four peaks were observed at a potential of 0.97 V, 0.62 V, 0.46 V and 0.078 V versus Ag/AgCl corresponding to the reduction of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu respectively. The concentration of these metals were determined using standard addition method. In order to compare the sensitivity of different voltammetric techniques for the determination of the heavy metals to trace level, the experiment has also been carried out in differential pulse polargraphic mode for white sugar samples.

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Bioremediation of Egyptian Crude Oil using Different Microorganisms

Shadia El Rafie and Samia M. Helmy

A comparative study was undertaken using different strains of fungi, yeast and bacteria to obtain the highest percent removal of Egyptian petroleum components and phenols. The different strains were screened on crude oil as a sole carbon source for one month at 35C. All of them displayed their susceptibility for reduction of petroleum oil hydrocarbons (99.49%:57.95%) while phenols have been reduced by nine strains only (84.29%:31.43%). Phanerochaete chrysosporium NRRL 6359 (89.74 oil%, 84.29 phenols %) and Saccharomyces carlsprgenisis (91.79 oil%, 77.9 phenols %) showed a double action on oil and phenols removal. The most vigorous strains have been studied in mixed cultures, from which culture No. 3 achieved better decrease in time and increase in biodegradation than if used singly (86.25 oil %, 91.56 phenols %). Also the seven strains, studied singly and mixed, were grown on emulsified oil corresponding petrochemical wastewater under unsterilized conditions. The culture No. 1 showed the best removal (96.66 oil %, 91.78 phenols %).

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Nickel (II) Complexes of Cyclic Phosphazenes

B.P. Baranwal, S.S. Das and Umme Farva

Addition complexes of anhydrous nickle(II) acetate with hexachloro and hexaethoxy cyclotriphosphazene ligands were prepared in different stoichiometric ratios. These complexes were characterized on the basis of electronic and IR spectra, magnetic moment, conductivity measure- ments, thermogravimetric analysis and molecular weight determination. The complexes were found to be active against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger fungi.

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A Comparative Study of the Densities and Excess Volumes of Binary Systems of PEG300 and PEG600 with Acetone and Methanol at Different Temperatures

J. Lahiri and D.N. Vora

Densities and excess volumes of PEG300 and PEG600 with acetone and methanol as a function of temperature were experimentally measured at three different temperatures.The data thus obtained are fitted in the equation :

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Membrane and Bi-ionic Potential Studies of Li+, Na+, K+ and Rb+ Cations using Cellulose Ion Selective Membrane Electrodes in Aqueous Media

D Pratika Singh, Neelam Sharma and M.G. Shet

An ion selective membrane electrode of varying thickness has been prepared from P-Cellulose using the appropriate polymer, solvent & additive composition. The membrane has been conditioned and used for the determination of membrane & bi-ionic potentials. The valid range of concentration has been determined. The values obtained in case of membrane & biionic potentials were found to be lower than the theoretical values.

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Topological Modeling of Toxic Effect of Organic Explosives, Propellants and Related Compounds using Szeged Index

K.C. Mathur, P.V. Khadikar1, Ugam K. Chauhan and Rahul Shrivastava

The present paper describes topological modeling of toxicity of explosives, propellants and related compound using newly introduced Szeged index (Sz). The diffusion coefficients in air (DCair) and water (DCH20) are used to represent toxic effect of the compounds used. The results obtained are critically discussed with those obtained from weighted winner index (W).

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Chemistry of Detergents and their Dermatogenic Effects

R.K. Pandey, R.K. Arya and Sunil K. Misra

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Chemical Approach of Pollution Prevention : Green Chemistry

K.P. Srivastava

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