Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Radiation Induced Studies of Capped Silver Nanoparticles

S.S. Joshi and M. K. Temgire

Gamma radiolysis method was used to prepare PVA and Brij97 capped Silver nanoparticles by optimizing various conditions like metal ion concentration, polymer/surfactant concentration and the amount of dose absorbed. The role of different scavengers was also studied. The decrease in particle size was observed with increase in the molecular weight of capping agent. g-radiolytic method provides silver nanoparticles in fully reduced and highly pure state. X-ray diffraction technique confirmed the zero valent state of silver. Optical studies were done using UV-visible spectrophotometer to see the variation of electronic structure of the metal. Transmission Electron Microscopic studies reveal the fcc geometry. The TEM shows clearly split Debye Scherrer rings. The d values calculated from the diffraction ring pattern are in perfect agreement with the ASTM data. Ag particles less than 10nm are spherical in shape, whereas the particles above 30nm have structure of pentagonal biprisms or decahedra, referred to as multiply twinned particles.

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An Assessment of the Extent of Pollution by the Effluent Water from Oil Producing Industries on Recipient Environment

Daniel I.O. Ikhu-Omoregbe and Oghgho Igwueokwu

The effect of waste water from some oil producing industries in the Niger delta area of Nigeria on the rivers that receive these waste waters was studied by sampling and analysing for some physico-chemical properties between December 1996 and May 1997. The effluents from the Ughelli Quality Control Center and Forcados oil treatment terminals are discharged into the Warri and Forcados rivers respectively. Samples collected before and after the discharge points reveal that these rivers were polluted as a result of the activities of the oil producing industries within the area. In particular the levels of potassium and sodium salts, TDS, sulphates, magnesium and calcium were fairly high in most cases thus constituting the main pollutants of these rivers. The levels of these parameters were observed to be higher around the discharge point from the Forcados terminal due to the ineffective treatment process at this terminal. The DO and BOD values indicate that the waters do not pose any significant threat to acqatic life. The levels of Cu++, Fe++ and Pb++ were also found to be very low below permissible values for drinking water.

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Water Quality Monitoring of Western Yamuna Canal from Tajewala to Haiderpur Treatment Plant, Delhi

Meenakshi1, V.K. Garg, K. Yadava, R. Gupta and M. Malik

Water quality of Western Yamuna Canal (WYC) was assessed from Tajewala barrage (Haryana) to Haiderpur treatment plant (Delhi). 20 samples were collected from different locations along the course of canal. The physico-chemical parameters analyzed were temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total hardness, total alkalinity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, nitrate and phosphate content in collected samples. It was observed that the water quality of WYC gets degraded with respect to some of analyzed parameters as it proceeds towards Delhi. A systematic study of correlation among various water quality parameters has been done, which concluded that electrical conductivity and total dissolved salts are positively and significantly correlated with most of the analyzed parameters. No disposal of industrial and domestic sewage has been found all along the route of WYC except at one location in Yamunanagar.

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Degradation of Pirimiphos-methyl in Stored Soybeans and Toxicological Potential of Its Residues Towards Mice

S.M.A.D. Zayed, M. Farghaly and F. Mahdy

The distribution and degradation of (14C-ring labelled) pirimiphos-methyl in stored soybeans were studied at doses normally used in practice and its multiple (15 and 30 mg/kg) for 7 months. Pirimiphos-methyl penetrated readily into the seed coat and the level of internal residues increased with storage time. The amount of internal residues was apparently not dose dependent. Chromatographic analysis of the internal extracts revealed the presence of the parent compound together with three main metabolites which were found in both free and conjugated form. Feeding mice with total internal residues of pirimiphos-methyl in soybeans for 3 months, led to a reduction in body weight gain, and an appreciable decrease in cholinesterase activity. The level of the serum enzymes glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phosphatase showed substantial increase. Blood urea nitrogen was significantly increased in treated mice. The obtained data reflect the toxicity of pirimiphos -methyl residues on both liver and kidney function.

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Liesegang Rings in Polyacrylamide Gel

N.S. Rajurkar, B.T. Hake and S.B. Bhosale

Possibility of using polyacrylamide gel for study of Liesegang rings in various systems have been explored and found to be suitable for the same. Out of thirteen systems, calcium phosphate system is studied in detail by varying concentration of inner and outer electrolytes. These results are also compared with that studied in agar and gelatin gels. The obtained Liesegang rings pattern follows the time law and spacing law. An event preceding the visual ring formation is also recorded using universal indicator.

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Paper Chromatographic Analysis of Aminoacids of Dryopteridaceous Ferns of the Western Ghats - South India

L. Henry Joseph, V.S. Manickam and S. Gopalakrishnan

The amino acid profile of sixteen taxa of Dryopteridaceous ferns are determined by ascending paper chromatography by comparing their Rf value with the standard aminoacids. The aminoacid profile is presented in the form of Paired Affinity Index and Group Affinity Index to provide indices of potential value in ascertaining taxonomic affinities. Paired affinity indices are also illustrated in the form of polygonal graphs. Dryopteridaceae is presumed as a fairly homogenous group due to the close Group Affinity Indices of aminoacids.

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Synthesis of Some New N-(4-N-(2-Methoxy Phenyl Amino Sulfonyl Phenyl)-3-Chloro-4-Phenyl Azetidine-2-Ones

H. S. Patel and V. K. Patel

Various 4-arylideneazanyl-N-(2-methoxy phenyl) benzene sulfonamides (3a-h) have been prepared by condensation of 4-amino-N-(2-methoxy phenyl) benzene sulfonamide (2) with different benzaldehyde derivatives. The Cyclocondensation reaction of (3a-h) with chloroacetylchloride affording N-(4-N-(2-methoxy phenyl amino sulfonyl phenyl) 3- chloro-4-phenyl azetidine-2-ones. (4a-h). All the azetidine derivatives (4a-h) were characterised by elemental analysis and IR, NMR spectral studies.

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Pentachlorophenol biodegradation by the bacteria Enterobacter cloacae

A. Nguyen, M. Martin, Shyam S. Shukla, R. Shukla, J.L. Margrave and J. Parga

The potential of various organisms to catabolize and metabolize organic compounds has been recognized as potentially effective means of disposing of hazardous wastes. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has long been used in herbicides, fungicides, and especially wood preservatives because of its remarkable germicidal and insecticidal properties. Although PCP is photolyzed under sunlight, the compound is quite recalcitrant and persistent in the absence of sunlight. This is a cause of some concern because of the high toxicity of this compound and the potential for biomagnification. Bioremediation of PCP has been recognized as a potential solution for the disposal of PCP due to its scaleability, cost effectiveness and simplicity. It has recently been discovered that the bacteria Enterobacter cloacae possesses the ability to metabolize PCP. This paper describes the process for this identification of this bacteria as an effective organism for the biodegradation of PCP and proposes a pathway for its metabolism.

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Biological Matrices Using Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry

R.M. Tripathi, R. Raghunath, S. Mahapatra, A. Vinod Kumar, S.T. Manikandan and S. Sadasivan

Electro thermal atomic absorption spectro-photometry (ET-AAS) has been used for the determination of Cobalt in a variety of environmental and biological samples. The detection limit of Co using ET-AAS was found to be 0.15 ng/ml. The precision of the method is established by analysing a synthetic mixture containing various elements in different quantities (0.5-10 ppm) and is found to be within 10%. The reliability of estimation is further assessed through the analysis of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) of Soil-7, Lichen (IAEA-336), Lake sediment (SL-I) and Hay (V-10) obtained from IAEA. The results indicate that the average concentration of Co in air particulate samples is 2.14 ng m 3. The daily intake of Co by the adult population of Mumbai is found to be 3.5mg/d.

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Study of Carbon monoxide emission on Flyovers and the effect of Topographic Features over Dispersion of Pollutants

Shahid H. Khan

Study of environment and related aspect is essential because it poses serious challenge to living being apart from having adverse effect on nonliving constituents. Rapid urbanization and industrialization on the outskirts of metropolition cities without scientific and systematic planning is solely responsible for it. The increase in vehicular density and plying of various types of vehicles particularly in unconditional state over unplanned, poorly maintained roads causes serious imbalance in the constitution of ambient air. This research work involves detailed study with respect to emission of carbon monoxide from passenger cars powered by four stroke petrol engines. The study includes biochemical effects of carbon monoxide on human life. It also takes into consideration the effect of topographical features over dispersion of pollutants on two of the flyovers constructed in the western suburbs of Mumbai city.

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Informative Article : Vehicular Pollution

P. K. Agarwal

Protection of environment affected by the vehicular pollution is recently a field of research and development in India. Pollution actually disturbs the balance of nature, which results in ill environment through vehicular emissions, especially in large urban areas. Vehicular emissions specifically affect the atmosphere producing air pollution. Vehicular pollution not only affects the quality of air, we breathe, but also our health, mother nature, the image of the city (like Hong Kong and New York) worldwide, as well as our future generations. Thats why the vehicular pollution is what our destiny depends on. This paper tells you some more about vehicular pollution worldwide. What are the pollutants? How they deteriorate our health? And things that we can do to improve the worse situation, apart from using CNG in vehicles in developing countries. The article focuses on the recent research and developments in this field like Fords Hydrogen Fuelled IC engines/Fuel Cell Vehicles. A Pollutants Absorbing device has also been proposed to be implanted on roads to balance the nature equilibrium interfered by human beings.

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Informative Article : Cyanide Detoxification - A Novel Approach

Jatin H. Parikh, Paulomi P. Shah and Kalpesh S. Parikh

The increased environmental awareness requires reviewing production technologies and waste treatment processes differently. Previously disposed of waste has to be looked at again to verify whether its disposal meets current regulations.The chemical destruction of waste products shows that it can solve past, present and future problems. The common process of oxidizing cyanide alternative process far detoxification of cyanide using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and with the help of novel catalysts. The process employed is environmentally safe, effective and does not create hazardous with hypochlorite often results in the formation of chlorinated compound. We present an byeproducts. Cyanide : Hydrogen peroxide at molar ratio of 1:3 at pH 10.2 gives excellent detoxification in presence of copper and cyanacat catalyst. Free cyanide level in waste water can be achieved below 0.2 ppm by catalyzed H2O2 oxidation process.

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Review Article : Single Molecular Fluorescence in Biosciences: Principle and Applications

Digambara Patra

Development of single molecular fluorescence (SMF) techniques in recent years has triggered a new era of biosciences. The dynamic properties of biomolecules and the unique operations of molecular machines, which are hidden in averaged ensemble measurements, have been expanding to include a wide range of biosciences. The principle of SMF and experiments on DNA sequencing, sizing, conformational study, protein-DNA interaction, molecular motors, protein folding/conformational study, diffusion of single molecule in membrane, biomolecular reaction dynamics and single virus tracing are summarized in this mini review.

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Single Molecular Fluorescence in Biosciences: Principle and Applications

Digambara Patra

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