Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

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Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment

Investigation of Heavy Metal Contents in Teas and Tea Beverages From Montenegro

N.Z. Blagojevicg, V.L. Vukainovic, M. Krgovic and R.M. Zejnilovic

The aim of this paper was to determine the content of Pb (lead) and Cd (cadmium) as toxic elements and on the other side, Zn (zinc) and Cu (copper) as bioelements in the following teas and tea beverages: Achillea millefolium L., Mentha piperita, L., Tilia L., Urtica dioica L. folium, Hypericum perforatum L. herba, Matricaria chamomilla L. flos and Tymus serpyllum L. herba. The samples were collected from the wild habitats in Piva, Bijelo Polje and Mojkovac (Montenegro) during the growing season 2002 and also from retail trade. In teas collected from wild habitats, retail trade and in their tea beverages the values of heavy metal contents don’t exceed the allowable limits in a plant tissue.

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Development of Anaerobic Filter for Resource Recovery Based Efficient Decentralised Wastewater Treatment

Sandeep Yeshwant Bodkhe

The Patented Technology (NF/251/99/CSIR/GOI) regarding an improved anaerobic reactor system and its performance evaluation using municipal wastewater is presented in this paper. At the optimum HRT of 12 hr, the BOD and COD reduction efficiencies were 91% and 89% and their concentrations in treated effluent were 20 mg/l and 38 mg/l respectively. Reduction in SS concentration due to built-in inclined tube settlers module was 93% with 95% reduction in VSS. The specific biogas yield obtained was 0.30 m3CH4/kgCODr. The performance evaluation study for 600 days indicated that the anaerobic system holds promise to be used as a package wastewater treatment plant for biodegradable wastewater laden with suspended solids. The reactor was found to be efficient for recovery of resources in the form of water as a treated effluent useful for irrigation and biogas of high calorific value as a energy resource.

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Kinetic Parameters Evaluation for Adsorption of Lead (II) by Soils: Role of Chelating Agents

R.J.Krupadam, R.Sarin

Removal rate of dissolved lead (II) by soil of high clay and silt content was studied in the laboratory. Chelating agents effect in adsorption process was examined. Parameters needed to demonstrate the plausibility of this soil remediation method include the concentration of chelate adsorbed to soil and the rate of Pb(II) removal. Three chelating agents, viz., dithizone (Dz), ethylenediaminete- traaceticacid (EDTA) and citric acid (CA) were selected. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that Pb(II) adsorption rapidly occurred in first 40-60 min and reached the complete removal in 2-3 h. Adsorption process rate coefficients and capacity of soil were evaluated using Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlisch-Peterson models. This work provide basis for evaluation of adsorption rate of Pb(II) from wastewater by soils.

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Organochlorine Pesticides in Rainwater of Urban and Rural Site of Lucknow, India

Puja Khare, D.K. Patel, R. Kumar and S.P. Srivastava

Levels of organochlorine pesticides (a-HCH, b-HCH, g-HCH, d HCH, Aldrin, Endosulphan, pp DDE, op DDT, pp DDD and pp DDT) were analyzed in rainwater collected from a rural and urban location. Aldrin, pp DDE, op DDT, pp DDD and pp DDT were not detected in rain samples. Endosulphan was detected only in one sample. Total HCH concentration in rainwater ranges ND to 443.13 ppt. In most of the samples at rural sites, ratio of a-and g-HCH was lower than unity, indicating a much higher input of the g isomer into the atmosphere as a consequence of the regular usage of insecticide formulations containing lindane (g-HCH) as the active ingredient. However, in urban air this ratio was quite high

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Densities and Excess Volumes of Binary Liquid Systems of PEG 200 and PEG 400 with 1-Butanol and Cyclohexanone at 303 K, 308 K and 313 K.

D.N. Vora, F.J. Jani

Densities for binary liquid systems for PEG 200 and PEG 400 with 1-butanol and cyclohexanone have been studied. The excess volumes (VE) have been calculated at 303 K, 308K and 313 K by using the standard relation over the entire range of composition for the systems. The data has been fitted to an empirical equaiton. VE=X1X2[a+b(2X11) + c (2X11)2] and the values of constants a, b and c have been evaluated by the least square method, along with standard deviation (s). The temperature effect has been studied in the light of specific interaction phenomena.

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Effect on pH and Electrical Conductivities of Soil with Respect to Extent of Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil under Natural Environment

Krishna G. Bhattacharjee1, Satyendra K. Choudhury2and Prahash C. Sarma2*

As a part of a series of solid phase soil remediation experiments involving crude oil and different refined petroleum products in order to investigate the extent of degradation at a stipulated time , different factors affecting degradation and effects of degradation on soil quality , pH and electrical conductivities of the polluted soil samples were determined at an interval of one month . It has been found that degradation of hydrocarbons is a long process, in an average about 20 components of crude oil disappear from soil in one month. The activity of degradation renders the soil sample acidic and less conductive to electricity.

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Ultrasonic Studies of CdSO4 in Methanol + Water Solvent at 303.15 K

J.R. Mohanty, P.C. Mohanty, B.R. Das and P.K. Mishra

Various acoustic parameters like isentropic compressibility (bs), intermolecular free length (Lf), Apparent molar volume (f), apparent molar compressibility (fk), molar compressibility (w), molar sound velocity (R), acoustic impedance (z) of CdSO4 in 10%,20%, 30% and methanol+water at 303.15 K have been determined from ultrasonic velocity (V) density (r) and relative viscocity (hr) of the solution. These parameters are related with the molar concentration of the solution and reflects the distortion of the structure of the solvent (i.e. methanol+water) when the solute is added to it.

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Synthesis and antifungal Activity of some Diphenymethane Containing Bis-(2-arylimino-3-yl-thiazolidinones) and Bis-(1-aryl-3-yl-2-thiohydantoins) derived from 2, 7-Dihydroxynaphthalene

Rutesh R. Shah, Y.M. Mehta and S.P. Patel

Various Naphthalene-2, 7-dioxymethylene bis-(2-arylimino-3-yl-thiazolidinones) and bis-(1-aryl-3-yl-2-thiohydantions) were prepared from Naphthalene 2, 7-dioxymethylene bis-(4-aryl-3-thiocarbamides) and screened for their antifungal activity against Penicillium expansum, Nigrosporasp and Trichothesiumsp.

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Geochemical Study of Fluoride in Ground Water of Behror Tehsil of Alwar District (Rajasthan)

Anil Kumar Yadav, P. K. Jain1 and Sunder Lal

A study has been undertaken for the determination of fluoride in drinking water taken at random from Behror and its suburbs with the help of Ion selective electrode method. Fluoride concentration has been found out in irrigation and drinking water drown from open wells, bore wells and hand pumps. The ground water samples of forty villages of this Tehsil were collected. The fluoride concentration values vary from 0.2 ppm to 5.2 ppm. In this Tehsil, villagers were suffering with dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis and gut fluorosis. Authors have suggested villagers to use alum and lime to avoid all type of fluorisis. From the observations, it may be inferred that fluoride is present in permissible limits (WHO-2003) in most of the villages studied but fluoride level is unacceptable in drinking water samples taken from some villages of Behror Tehsil.

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Determination of Nickel (II) After on-line Sorbent Preconcentration by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Carbon Active Loaded With Pyrogallol Red

Ali A. Ensafi, T. Khyamian & H. Eatemadi

A mini-column was made by packing pyrogallol red, loaded on activated carbon and used for the preconcentration of nickel(II) ions. Water samples were buffered at the pH of 9.3 and then passed through the column. After the preconcentration step, the column was eluted with 0.1 M nitric acid, and the nickel(II) ions were measured by flam atomic absorption spectrometry. The influence of various parameters such as pH, flow rate of sample and eluent, concentration and volume of the sample were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, nickel in aqueous sample was concentrated about 100-fold. Influence of potential interfering ions was also studied. Nickel recovery from river water and tap water in the range of 98.6-99.8% can be obtained by this method. The method provides a linear relationship between absorbance and nickel concentration in the range from 10 to 400 ng/ml, with a detection limit of 3 ng/ml. The precision, RSD%, for six independent determinations reached values of 2.2% for nickel solution of 200 ng/ml concentration.

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Flavonoids from endemic Sideroxylon species (Sapotaceae) of Mauritius

F. B. Narod, A. Gurib-Fakim1 and A. H. Subratty*

Results from the screening for antibacterial activity of crude and fractionated extracts from 9 endemic Sapotaceae plants of Mauritius are reported. All the crude plant extracts investigated showed antibacterial activity against at least one of the four test bacteria. Bioassay-guided fractionation has revealed that antibacterial activity of the Sapotaceae species resided mostly in the polar methanol and aqueous plant fractions. Chemical investigations into the bioactive plant fractions led to the isolation and characterization of (+)-catechin [1] and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (quercitrin) [2] from leaves of Sideroxylon grandiflorum DC. and luteolin [3] from leaves of Sideroxylon cinereum Lam.

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Cadmium and Lead Concentration at Residential Area nearby Labu River System Riverbank, Malaysia

Lim Sun Hoo, Abdullah Samat1, Mohd. Rozali Othman

A study had been carried to determine the concentration of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) at residential area near Labu River System, in Malaysia. The main objective of this study was to measure the concentration of Cd and Pb and to highlight the potential discharge sources into watercourses. Results obtained showed that Cd (0.022-0.042 mg/l) was classified as Class V while Pb (0.219-0.325 mg/l) was categorized in Class IV based on Interim National Water Quality Standard (INWQS) of Malaysia with respect to aquatic life, water supply, livestock drinking and irrigation. Concentrations of Cd and Pb also exceed the permissible level for drinking-water quality regulated by World Health Organization (WHO). Results obtained indicate that water bodies of Labu River System were not suitable to be used as potable water supply. Domestic wastewater effluent, household piping systems, infrastructure networks, local scale open burning and agricultural activities were the main sources of Cd and Pb contributor to the Labu River System.

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Deinking of Laser-printed Office Waste Papers

Naif A. Darwish1, Mamdouh T. Gannam, Ali Dowaidar2 and Nidal Hilal

In this work the deinking process was simulated in a small high speed blender of about 2 liters capacity. The effects of polyethylene (PE) and wax-coated PE on the removal of toner particles in the pulper slurry have been experimentally investigated. The effect of one commercial surfactant (30% anionic, 5% nonionic) on the toner release efficiency was also studied. The average area of toner particles retained on filter papers were determined using an image analysis system that consists of a high-resolution video camera mounted on an optical polarizing microscope, an image software processor, a Pentium PC, and a high-resolution image monitor. The effect of low density PE on toner detachment from laser-printed standard paper was investigated over a concentration range of 0 to 200% PE (relative to paper mass). It is found that PE has a certain capabilty of removing (adsorbing) toner particles. In the second phase of this research work, the effect of wax-coated PE was investigated. It was found that wax-coated PE enhances the removal of toner particles beyond that obtained using only PE. Finally, the effect of a commercial surfactant on the release of toner particles has been investigated over a range of surfactant mass percentage (relative to the paper mass).

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Inbuilt Cleaner Technology Options for new Coming Tannery Clusters for an Easy-Economical and Reduced Pollution Load Management

Subhash Awasthi

The world is now looking for pollution prevention possibilities in industrial activities especially Tanneries by using sophisticated equipment, sophisticated machinery and with best available raw material resources in all kind of industries. It is better to prevent the pollution rather than its generation and then control, because the periodical gap between the generation of pollution and its effective control affects the entire habitat and ecology thereon and this creates the hazard for living beings of this planet.

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Treatment of Dye Bearing Waste Water by Adsorption Technique Using Sugar Industry Wastes

K. Vasanth Kumar

Experiments were carried out in a batch and continuous process to remove color Methylene blue � a basic dye from its aqueous solution using carbonized press mud and boiler bottom ash as adsorbent. The operating variables studied are initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, agitation speed and bed height. Based on experimental result a simple adsorption column for lab scale study has been desigend based on bed depth service theory. Design plot relating rate of adsorbent exhaustion and empty bed contact time were also generated.

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Study on Some Physico Chemical Characteristics of Flowing Water of Ganges River at Hardwar

Samiksha Chaturvedi, Dinesh Kumar and R.V. Singh

Physico-chemical monitoring of river Ganga at Hardwar was carried out during the months of July and August 2002. The sampling points were selected on the basis of their importance. A lot of nalahs carrying sewage and industrial effluents are being discharged into the river Ganges. The analysis was carried out for the parameters namely temperature, pH, D.O., B.O.D., C.O.D., chloride, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, T.D.S., calcium and magnesium1. The results obtained in the present investigations revealed that the discharge of untreated industrial effluents and sewage have contributed considerable pollution in the river Ganga at Hardwar and is unsafe for consumption or human use and therefore need serious attention.

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